PSYCH 130 Exam 1

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PSYCH 130 Exam 1
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  1. acculturation
    the process of social influence by which a person partially or fully acquires a new cultural outlook, either by having contact with, or by living in, a culture different from his culture of origin
  2. aggregation
    the combining together of different measurements, such as by averaging them
  3. amygdala
    a structure located near the base of the brain that is believed to play a role in emotion, especially negative emotions sich as anger and fear
  4. anal stage
    in psychoanalytic theory, the stage of psychosexual development, from about 18 months to 3 1/2 or 4 years of age, in which the physical focus of the libido is located in the anus and associated with eliminative organs
  5. archetypes
    in Jung's version of psychoanalysis, the fundamental images of people that are contained in the collective unconscious, including (among others), "the earth mother," "the hero," "the devil," and "the supreme being"
  6. B Data
    • behavioral data or direct observations of another's behavior that are translated drectly or  nearly directly into numeric form
    • B data can be gathered in natural or contrived (experimental) settings
  7. case methods
    studying a particular phenomenon or individual in depth both to understand the particular case and in hopes of discovering general lessons or scientific laws
  8. classical conditioning
    the kind of learning in which an unconditioned response (such as salivating), that is naturally elicited by one stimulus (such as food), becomes elicited also by a new, conditioned stimulus (such as a bell)
  9. cohort effect
    the tendency for a researchfinding to be limited to one group, or cohort, of people, such as people all living during a particular era or in particular location
  10. conscious mind
    that part of the mind's activities of which one is aware
  11. correlational mehod
    a research technique that establishes the relationship (not necessarily casual) between two variables, traditionally denote and y, by measuring both variables in a sample of participants
  12. correlational coefficient
    a number between -1 and +1 that reflects the degree to which one variable, traditionally called y, is a linear function of another, teaditionally called x

    a negative correlation means that as x goes up, goes down; a positive correlation means that as goes up, so does y; a zero correlation means that and are unrelated
  13. cross-cultural psychology
    psychological research and theorizing that attempts to account for the psychological differences between the within different cultural groups
  14. defense mechanisms
    in psychoanalytic theory, the mechanisms of the ego that serve to protect an individual from experiencing anxiety produced by conflicts with the id, super eg, or reality
  15. ego
    in psychoanalytic theory, the relatively rational part of the mind that balances the competing claims of the id, the super ego, and reality
  16. experimental method
    a research technique that establishes the causal relationship between an independent variable (x) and the dependent variable (y) by randomly assigning participants to experimental groups characterized by differing levels of x, and measuring the average behavior (y) that results in each group
  17. face validity
    • the degree to which an assessment instrument, such as a questionnaire, on its face appears to measure what is intended to measure
    • for example, a face-valid measure of sociability might ask about attendance at parties
  18. Funder's First Law
    great strengths are usually great weaknesses, and surprisingly often the opposite is true as well
  19. Funder's Second Law
    there are no perfect indicators of personality; there are only clues, and clues are ambiguous
  20. generalizability
    • the degree to which measurement can be found under diverse circumstances, such as time, context, participant population, and so on
    • in modern psychometrics, this term includes both reliability and validity
  21. genital stage
    • in psychoanalytic theory, the final stage of psychosexual decelopment, in which the physical focus of the libido is on the genitals, with an emphasis on hererosexual relationships
    • the stage begins at about puberty, but is only fully attained when and if the individual achieves psychological maturity
  22. humanistic psychology
    • the approach to personality that emphasizes aspects of psychology that are distinctly human
    • closely related to the phenomenological approach and existentialism
  23. id
    in psychoanalytic theory, the repository of the drives, the emotions, and the primitive, unconscious part of the mind that wants everything now
  24. I Data
    informants's dataor judgementsmade vy knowledgeable informants about general attributes of an individual's personality
  25. judgeability
    the extent to which an individual's personality can be judged accurately by others
  26. L Data
    life data, or more-or-less easily verifiable, concrete, real-life outcomes, which are possible psychological significance
  27. libido
    in psychoanalytic theory, the drive toward the creation, nurturing, and enhancement of life (including, but not limited to sex), or the energy stemming from this drive; also called psychic energy
  28. measurement error
    the variation of a number around its true mean due to uncontrolled, essentially random influences; also called error variance
  29. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • a widely used test derived throughthe empirical method
    • originally designed for the diagnosis of psychopathology
    • ...it is used today to measure a wide range of personality attributes
  30. oral stage
    in psychoanalytic theory, the stage of psychosexual development, from birth to about 18 months of age, during which the physical focus of the libidos located in the mouth, lips, and tongue
  31. personality
    an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms behind those patterns
  32. personality development
    change in personality over time, including the development of adult personality from its origins in infancy and childhood, and changes in personality over the life span
  33. personality trait
    a pattern of thought, emotion, or behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations
  34. phallic stage
    in psychoanalytic theory, the stage of psychosexual development from about 4 to 7 years of age in which the physical focus of the libido is the penis (for boys) and its lack (for girls)
  35. preconscious
    thoughts and ideas that temporarily reside just out of consciousness but which one measure can be brought to mind quickly and easily
  36. projection
    in psychoanalytic theory,the defense mechanism of attributing to somebodyelsea thought or impulse one fears in oneself
  37. projective test
    • a test the presents a participant with an ambiguous stimulus, such as a picture or inkblot and asks what he sees
    • some psychologists believe that the answer reveals inner psychological states or motivatesof which the participant may be unaware
  38. rationalization
    in psychoanalytic theory the defense mechanism that priduces a seemingly logical rationale for an impulse or thought that would otherwise cause anxiety
  39. regression
    in psychoanalytic theory,retreatingto an earlier, more immature stage of psychosexual development, usually because of stress but sometimes in the service of play and creativity
  40. reliabilty
    in measurement, the tendency of an instrument to provide the same comparative informationon repeated occasions
  41. research
    exploration of the unknown; finding out something that nobody knew before one discovered it
  42. Rorschach test
    a projective test that asks subjects to interpret blots of ink
  43. S Data
    self-judgements, or ratings that people provide of their own personality attributes or behavior
  44. self-efficacy
    one's beliefs about the degree to which one will be able to accomplish a goal if one tries
  45. super ego
    in psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind that consists of the conscious and the individual's system of internalized rulesof conduct, or morality
  46. Thematic Appreception Test (TAT)
    a projective test that asks subjects to make up stories about pictures
  47. trait
    a relatively stable and long-lasting attribute of personality
  48. unconscious (mind)
    those areas and processes of the mind of which a person is not aware
  49. validity
    the degree to which a measurement actually reflects what it is intended to measure

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