W3-Central Nervous System (CNS)

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W3-Central Nervous System (CNS)
2014-02-08 16:25:26

CNS- parts and functions
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  1. Dorsal?
    towards the back and top of brain
  2. Ventral?
    towards the stomach
  3. Anterior?
    towards nose
  4. Posterior?
    towards the tail
  5. Coronal plane?
    splits right between lift to right ear
  6. Horizontal view?
    the half right above the eyes
  7. Sagital View?
    • Cuts right between middle of head(Verticle cut)
    • between nose
  8. Superior?
    above another part
  9. Inferior?
    below another part
  10. Proximal?
    closest part of origin
  11. Distal?
    Located far from the point of origin or attachment
  12. Ipsilateral?
    located on same side of body
  13. contra lateral?
    located on opposite side of body
  14. Tract?
    set of neurons in CNS
  15. Nerve?
    set of axons in the Peripheral NS- either from CNS to muscle/gland or from Sensory organs to CNS
  16. Nucleus?
    cluster of cell bodies INSIDE of CNS
  17. Ganglion?
    Cluster of cell bodies OUTSIDE of CNS
  18. Afferent?
    going in
  19. Efferent?
    going outside
  20. LIMBIC System includes?
    • -cingulate gyrus
    • -amygdula
    • -hippocampus
    • -hypothalumus
  21. Dorsal roots carry?
    sensory info from the sensory receptors to the spinal cord inside - (afferent)
  22. Ventral roots carry?
    away motor nervs (efferent)
  23. Cell bodies of motor neurons are in?
    spinal chord
  24. Gray matter at center of cord is densely packed with?
    cell bodies and dendrites
  25. Many neurons transmit info to or from the brain send axons through the area known as?
    White matter = which is easier to travel through
  26. Each segment of the spinal cord sends and receives info from?
    a specific area the body
  27. If the spinal chords is cut at a specific level, the brain loses control over the....?
    muscles below the area of injury and sensation below area of injury
  28. Autonomic-Nervous System controls...?
    internal organs without conscious, i.e, heart rate, breathing, digestion, urination...
  29. The Autonomic System is divided into what 2 sections?
    Parasympathetic & Sympathetic Nervous systems
  30. Sympathetic Nervous System does what?
    prepares organs for "fight or flight" i.e,.. fight or flee from a predator,
  31. Parasympathetic Nervous System does what?
    it regenerates the body and its at a vegetative state/non-emergency responses
  32. The Hind-Brain includes what brain areas?
    Medulla, pons, and cerebellum
  33. What is the Medullas function and location?
    • It controls the vital reflexes, i.e,... hear rate, breathing & etc...
    • -opiate receptors suppress the Medulla & suppress breathing
    • -can be fatal
    • is located just above the spinal chord
  34. Pons "bridge" in latin
    axons from each half of the brain cross to the opposite side of the spinal chord- left-hemesphere controls muscles on right side of body
  35. Pons main function is to?
    -pass information between the cerebellum and cerebrum

    Also helps to send other messages to the brain, manage arousal feelings, and monitor respiration.
  36. Medulla and Pons contain..?
    Reticular formation- important in arousal and motivation
  37. Medulla and Pons also contain what system?
    Raphe system- it modifies brains response to stimuli
  38. Cerebullums function?
    -Balance, coordination, and motor memory... i.e.. how to ride a bike
  39. The Mid-Brain includes?
    -Superior colliculi - processing of visual info & -Inferior colliculi- processing of audio info

    -Substancia Nigra, and Ventrical Tragmental Area(VTA)
  40. Ventral Tegmental Area gives rise to what 2 importan pathways?
    1.Reward pathway- goes to limbic system & to the nucleus accumbens- mesolimbic tract-

    2.Pathway that goes to prefrontal cortex for planning and problem sovling-
  41. mesocortical tract
    This pathway regulates some emotion and motivation. In schizophrenia, this pathway may be disrupted, leading to irregularities in emotion such as flat affect.
  42. mesolimbic tract
    • begins in the midbrain, buttravels through the limbic system of the brain. Involves emotion, motivation, and reward.
    • -is another one of the dopaminergic pathways disordered in schizophrenia.
  43. The forebrain includes...?
    • Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia,
    • -Limbic system
    • -Thalamus, pituatary gland, and basal forbrain
  44. Limbic system =
    (cingulate gyrus, amydula, hippocampus, hypothalumus)
  45. Thalamus -2 lobe like structers in the center of the forbrain is responsible for...?
    most sensory info goes here, and if important it sends it to the appropriate area of the cortex, i.e,.. vision- eye to thalamus (deemed relavant info) -sent on the occipital lobe
  46. Hypothalumus general functions?
    connects the brains neurological functioning with endocrine hormonal functioning
  47. Hypothalumus controlls the ANS if a __ is perceived the ___ is stimulated?
    A1: = threat

    A2: = Sympathetic N-system
  48. Hypothalamus = master gland and controls many aspects of the ____ system?
    Endocrine (hormone)
  49. The Hypothalamus regulates the ____ ?
    body temperature
  50. The Hypothalamus 4 Basic drives aka 4 F's are?
    fighting, fleeing, feeding, & fornicating
  51. Hypothalamus is also very important in the sleep/wake cycles aka?
    circadian rythms
  52. Pituitary Gland
    is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus
  53. The pituitary is divided into three sections known as the?
    anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes,
  54. the Pituitary gland- connected withe endocrine system
    produces hormones which control other glands as well as various bodily functions, testies/ovaries, sperm/eggs, breast milk, adrenal glands
  55. Hormones produced by the anterior lobe
    • regulate growth and stimulate the adrenal and thyroid glands as well as the ovaries and testes.
    • - It also generates prolactin, which enables new mothers to produce milk.
  56. The intermediate lobe?
    releases a hormone which stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation through the production of melanin
  57. The posterior lobe produces
    antidiuretic hormone, which reclaims water from the kidneys and conserves it in the bloodstream to prevent dehydration. Oxytocin is also produced- aiding in uterine contraction during childbirth and stimulating the production of milk.
  58. Basal Ganglia is a group of ____
    3 structures lateral to the thalamus
  59. Basal Ganglia functions?
    important for movement, remembering how to do things
  60. Basal Ganglia sends info to many areas of the ____ where it releases ACH.

    Also important in ____

    Deterioration of Basal Ganglia leads to ___?
    A1. Cerebral cortex

    A2. arousal/attention

    A3: Alzheimer's Dz
  61. Lymbic system- regulates emotions & motivation-- and includes what....?
    Cingulate gyrus, Amygdula, hippocampus, hypothalamus
  62. Cingulate gyrus does what?
    • connects lower limbic systems to the cortical centers
    • -regulates appropriate actions to emotional reactions
  63. The Amygdula sits in the ___? and processes _____  i.e., how angry/scared should i be?
    A1: temporal lobe

    A2: emotional reactions
  64. Hyppocampus is important for?
    long-term memory and if damaged can't store new memories
  65. The Ventriculs = 4 fluid cavities in the brain
    2 larger lateral ventricals connects to the 3rd ventrical in the back, and the 3rd ventrical connects to the 4th in Center of the Medulla
  66. Ventriculs are lined with ___ cells and produce CSF
  67. the CSF flows from the lateral V's to 3rd and then 4th Vs and from there it goes...?
    to either central canal of Spinal cord or area between brain and membranes that surround the brain
  68. CSF- functions are?
    • shock absorber, supports brain weight-buoyancy
    • -provides nutrients, and removes wastes
  69. if CSF is blocked pressure builds up and destroys ___?
  70. ______ is accumulation of CSF in the Ventricles
  71. Main cause of Hydrocephalus is?
    Obstruction(tumors, hemorrhage, trauma, meningitis, congenital malformations
  72. Hydrocephalus in babies
    -irritability, seizures, poor feeding, vomiting, sleepiness, downward gaze, Enlarged head cuz plates don't face until after age 3
  73. Hydrocephalus in Adults
    -headaches, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness
  74. Hydrocephalus is most common in___?
    elderly- caused by hemorrhage, head trauma from a fall, stroke, tumors... ventricals enlarge slowly
  75. More effects of Hydrocephalus result in decline of___, ____,___?
    memory, reasoning, speaking = dimentia, walking, and urinary incontinence

    • -some symptons can be reversed with treatment.
    • -incidence in assisted living elderly = 9-14%