W3-Central Nervous System (CNS)
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towards the back and top of brain
towards the stomach
towards the tail
splits right between lift to right ear
the half right above the eyes
- Cuts right between middle of head(Verticle cut)
- between nose
above another part
below another part
closest part of origin
Located far from the point of origin or attachment
located on same side of body
located on opposite side of body
set of neurons in CNS
set of axons in the Peripheral NS- either from CNS to muscle/gland or from Sensory organs to CNS
cluster of cell bodies INSIDE of CNS
Cluster of cell bodies OUTSIDE of CNS
LIMBIC System includes?
- -cingulate gyrus
Dorsal roots carry?
sensory info from the sensory receptors to the spinal cord inside - (afferent)
Ventral roots carry?
away motor nervs (efferent)
Cell bodies of motor neurons are in?
Gray matter at center of cord is densely packed with?
cell bodies and dendrites
Many neurons transmit info to or from the brain send axons through the area known as?
White matter = which is easier to travel through
Each segment of the spinal cord sends and receives info from?
a specific area the body
If the spinal chords is cut at a specific level, the brain loses control over the....?
muscles below the area of injury and sensation below area of injury
Autonomic-Nervous System controls...?
internal organs without conscious, i.e, heart rate, breathing, digestion, urination...
The Autonomic System is divided into what 2 sections?
Parasympathetic & Sympathetic Nervous systems
Sympathetic Nervous System does what?
prepares organs for "fight or flight" i.e,.. fight or flee from a predator,
Parasympathetic Nervous System does what?
it regenerates the body and its at a vegetative state/non-emergency responses
The Hind-Brain includes what brain areas?
Medulla, pons, and cerebellum
What is the Medullas function and location?
- It controls the vital reflexes, i.e,... hear rate, breathing & etc...
- -opiate receptors suppress the Medulla & suppress breathing
- -can be fatal
- is located just above the spinal chord
Pons "bridge" in latin
axons from each half of the brain cross to the opposite side of the spinal chord- left-hemesphere controls muscles on right side of body
Pons main function is to?
-pass information between the cerebellum and cerebrum
Also helps to send other messages to the brain, manage arousal feelings, and monitor respiration.
Medulla and Pons contain..?
Reticular formation- important in arousal and motivation
Medulla and Pons also contain what system?
Raphe system- it modifies brains response to stimuli
-Balance, coordination, and motor memory... i.e.. how to ride a bike
The Mid-Brain includes?
-Superior colliculi - processing of visual info & -Inferior colliculi- processing of audio info
-Substancia Nigra, and Ventrical Tragmental Area(VTA)
Ventral Tegmental Area gives rise to what 2 importan pathways?
1.Reward pathway- goes to limbic system & to the nucleus accumbens- mesolimbic tract-
2.Pathway that goes to prefrontal cortex for planning and problem sovling-
This pathway regulates some emotion and motivation. In schizophrenia, this pathway may be disrupted, leading to irregularities in emotion such as flat affect.
- begins in the midbrain, buttravels through the limbic system of the brain. Involves emotion, motivation, and reward.
- -is another one of the dopaminergic pathways disordered in schizophrenia.
The forebrain includes...?
- Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia,
- -Limbic system
- -Thalamus, pituatary gland, and basal forbrain
Limbic system =
(cingulate gyrus, amydula, hippocampus, hypothalumus)
Thalamus -2 lobe like structers in the center of the forbrain is responsible for...?
most sensory info goes here, and if important it sends it to the appropriate area of the cortex, i.e,.. vision- eye to thalamus (deemed relavant info) -sent on the occipital lobe
Hypothalumus general functions?
connects the brains neurological functioning with endocrine hormonal functioning
Hypothalumus controlls the ANS if a __ is perceived the ___ is stimulated?
A1: = threat
A2: = Sympathetic N-system
Hypothalamus = master gland and controls many aspects of the ____ system?
The Hypothalamus regulates the ____ ?
The Hypothalamus 4 Basic drives aka 4 F's are?
fighting, fleeing, feeding, & fornicating
Hypothalamus is also very important in the sleep/wake cycles aka?
is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus
The pituitary is divided into three sections known as the?
anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes,
the Pituitary gland- connected withe endocrine system
produces hormones which control other glands as well as various bodily functions, testies/ovaries, sperm/eggs, breast milk, adrenal glands
Hormones produced by the anterior lobe
- regulate growth and stimulate the adrenal and thyroid glands as well as the ovaries and testes.
- - It also generates prolactin, which enables new mothers to produce milk.
The intermediate lobe?
releases a hormone which stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation through the production of melanin
The posterior lobe produces
antidiuretic hormone, which reclaims water from the kidneys and conserves it in the bloodstream to prevent dehydration. Oxytocin is also produced- aiding in uterine contraction during childbirth and stimulating the production of milk.
Basal Ganglia is a group of ____
3 structures lateral to the thalamus
Basal Ganglia functions?
important for movement, remembering how to do things
Basal Ganglia sends info to many areas of the ____ where it releases ACH.
Also important in ____
Deterioration of Basal Ganglia leads to ___?
A1. Cerebral cortex
A3: Alzheimer's Dz
Lymbic system- regulates emotions & motivation-- and includes what....?
Cingulate gyrus, Amygdula, hippocampus, hypothalamus
Cingulate gyrus does what?
- connects lower limbic systems to the cortical centers
- -regulates appropriate actions to emotional reactions
The Amygdula sits in the ___? and processes _____ i.e., how angry/scared should i be?
A1: temporal lobe
A2: emotional reactions
Hyppocampus is important for?
long-term memory and if damaged can't store new memories
The Ventriculs = 4 fluid cavities in the brain
2 larger lateral ventricals connects to the 3rd ventrical in the back, and the 3rd ventrical connects to the 4th in Center of the Medulla
Ventriculs are lined with ___ cells and produce CSF
the CSF flows from the lateral V's to 3rd and then 4th Vs and from there it goes...?
to either central canal of Spinal cord or area between brain and membranes that surround the brain
CSF- functions are?
- shock absorber, supports brain weight-buoyancy
- -provides nutrients, and removes wastes
if CSF is blocked pressure builds up and destroys ___?
______ is accumulation of CSF in the Ventricles
Main cause of Hydrocephalus is?
Obstruction(tumors, hemorrhage, trauma, meningitis, congenital malformations
Hydrocephalus in babies
-irritability, seizures, poor feeding, vomiting, sleepiness, downward gaze, Enlarged head cuz plates don't face until after age 3
Hydrocephalus in Adults
-headaches, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness
Hydrocephalus is most common in___?
elderly- caused by hemorrhage, head trauma from a fall, stroke, tumors... ventricals enlarge slowly
More effects of Hydrocephalus result in decline of___, ____,___?
memory, reasoning, speaking = dimentia, walking, and urinary incontinence
- -some symptons can be reversed with treatment.
- -incidence in assisted living elderly = 9-14%
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