Chapter 6 Life Span Development and Module Questions

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Chapter 6 Life Span Development and Module Questions
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2014-02-07 23:09:12
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Chapter 6 Life Span Development and Module Questions
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  1. Infants
    ages 1 month to 1 year
  2. Neonates
    birth to 1 month
  3. The younger the person, the ____ the pulse rate and respirations.
    faster
  4. At birth, a pulse rate of __ to ___ beats/min and a respiratory rate of __ to __ breaths/min are considered normal.
    • 90
    • 180
    • 30
    • 60
  5. Shortly after birth, the pulse often drops to ___ to ___ beats/min and the respiratory rate drops between __ to __ breaths/min.
    • 100
    • 160
    • 25
    • 50
  6. By 1 year, the respiratory rate slows to __ to __ breaths/min.
    • 20
    • 30
  7. Blood pressure directly corresponds to the patient’s weight, so it typically ____ with age.
    increases
  8. The average systolic blood pressure is __ to __ mm Hg for a neonate, and __ to __ mm Hg by 1 year of age.
    • 50
    • 70
    • 70
    • 95
  9. A neonate usually weighs _ to _ lb at birth.
    • 6
    • 8
  10. A neonate's head accounts for __% of its body weight.
    25
  11. After week 2, infants grow at a rate of about __ g per day, doubling their weight by 4 to 6 months and tripling it by the end of the first year.
    30
  12. Infants younger than _ months are particularly prone to nasal congestion.
    6
  13. A ____ rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.
    neonate's
  14. Infants can more easily occlude their airway than older children or adults, due to the proportionately large size of the ____ and a proportionally shorter, narrower ____.
    • tongue
    • airway
  15. For bag-mask ventilation, remember that an infant’s lungs are fragile. Too forceful ventilations can result in trauma from pressure, or ____.
    barotrauma
  16. The ____ reflex (startle reflex) happens when a neonate is caught off guard. The neonate opens the arms wide, spreads the fingers, and seems to grab at things.
    Moro
  17. A ____ grasp occurs when an object is placed into the neonate’s palm.
    palmar
  18. The ____ reflex takes place when something touches a neonate’s cheek. The neonate will instinctively turn his or her head toward the touch.
    rooting
  19. The ____ reflex occurs when a neonate’s lips are stroked.
    sucking
  20. The posterior fontanelle fuses by _ months.
    3
  21. The anterior fontanelle fuses between _ and __ months of age.
    • 9
    • 18
  22. If either of the fontanelles is depressed, the infant is most likely ____.  A bulging fontanelle is indicative of increased intracranial ____.
    • dehydrated
    • pressure
  23. ____-____ attachment, is found in infants who are repeatedly rejected.
    Anxious-avoidant
  24. Separation anxiety peaks between __ and __ months.
    • 10
    • 18
  25. Toddlers
    ages 1 to 3 years
  26. A toddler's pulse rate is __ to ___ beats/min.  The respiratory rate is __ to __ breaths/min.  The systolic blood pressure is __ to ___ mm Hg.  The average temperature is ___°F to ___°F.
    • 90 to 150
    • 20 to 30
    • 80 to 100
    • 96.8°F to 99.6°F
  27. A ____ lungs continue to develop more terminal bronchioles and alveoli.
    toddler’s
  28. Preschoolers
    ages 3 to 6 years
  29. A preschooler's pulse rate is __ to ___ beats/min.  The respiratory rate is __ to __ breaths/min.  The systolic blood pressure is __ to ___ mm Hg.
    • 80 to 140
    • 20 to 25
    • 80 to 100
  30. Although toddlers and ____ have more lung tissue, they do not have well-developed lung musculature.  This anomaly prevents them from sustaining deep or rapid respirations for an extended period of time.
    preschoolers
  31. Preschoolers will have a brain that weighs __% of its final adult weight.
    90
  32. Physiologically, toddlers have the neuromuscular control capable for bladder control by __ to __ months of age.  However, the child may not be psychologically ready until 18 to 30 months of age.  The average age for completion of toilet training is __ months of age.
    • 12 to 15
    • 18 to 30
    • 28
  33. At __ months of age, basic language is mastered.
    36
  34. By __ to __ months, cause and effect begin to become understood.
    18 to 24
  35. School-age children
    6 to 12 years
  36. The pulse rate of school-age children is approximately __ to ___ beats/min.  The respiratory rate is __ to __ breaths/min.  The blood pressure is __ to ___ mm Hg.
    • 70 to 120
    • 15 to 20
    • 80 to 110
  37. School-age children grow _ lb and __" each year.
    • 4
    • 2.5
  38. Children act almost purely to avoid punishment and get what they want.
    Preconventional reasoning
  39. Children look for approval from their  peers and society.
    Conventional reasoning
  40. Children make decisions guided by their conscience.
    Postconventional reasoning
  41. ____-____ is our perception of ourselves.
    Self-concept
  42. ____-____ is how we feel about ourselves and how we “fit in” with our peers.
    Self-esteem
  43. Adolescents
    12 to 18 years
  44. The pulse rate of adolescents is __ to ___ beats/min.  The respiratory rate is __ to __ breaths/min.  The systolic blood pressure is between __ and ___ mm Hg.
    • 60 to 100
    • 12 to 20
    • 90 and 110
  45. Adolescents experience a _ to _ year growth spurt (an increase in muscle and bone growth) and body changes.
    2- to 3-
  46. Girls generally finish their growth spurt by __ years, boys by  years.
    • 16
    • 18
  47. Antisocial behavior and peer pressure tend to peak at age __ to __ years.
    14 to 16
  48. Early Adults
    19 to 40 years
  49. An early and middle adult's pulse rate will average around __ beats/min and range between __ to ___ beats/min.  The respiratory rate will stay in the range of 12 to 20 breaths/min.  The systolic blood pressure will be between __ and ___ mm Hg.
    • 70
    • 60 to 100
    • 12 to 20
    • 90 and 140
  50. From age __ years to shortly after __ years, the body should be functioning at its optimal level.
    • 19
    • 25
  51. An ____ ____ life centers on work, family, and stress.
    early adult's
  52. Middle Adults
    41 to 60 years
  53. Menopause takes place in the late __s or early __s.
    • 40
    • 50
  54. The focus of a ____ ____ is on achieving life goals.
    middle adult
  55. ____ ____ may find themselves caring for children leaving for college and caring for their aging parents as well.
    Middle adults
  56. Late adults
    61 years and up
  57. In the early 1900s, life expectancy was __ years.  It is now approximately __ years, with maximum life expectancy estimated at ___ years.
    • 47
    • 78
    • 120
  58. More than __% of people older than 65 years have atherosclerotic disease.
    60
  59. ____ blood pressure increases with age.
    Diastolic
  60. In late adults, the size of the airway ____ and the surface area of the alveoli ____.
    • increases
    • decreases
  61. In late adults, the natural elasticity of the lungs also ____.  ____ muscles are used more to breathe.  Breathing becomes more labor intensive.
    • decreases
    • Intercostal
  62. Within the mouth and nose, there is a gradual loss of the mechanisms that protect the ____ airway.  This leads to a ____ ability to clear secretions as well as decreased cough and gag reflexes.  Aspiration and obstruction become more likely.
    • upper
    • decreased
  63. As the smooth muscles of the lower airway weaken with age, strong inhalation can make the walls of the airway collapse inward and cause inspiratory ____.
    wheezing
  64. By age __ years, the vital capacity may amount to only __% of the vital capacity of a young adult.
    • 75
    • 50
  65. Residual volume ____ with age.
    increases
  66. The filtration function declines by __% from age 20 to 90 years.  Kidney mass decreases __% over the same span.
    • 50
    • 20
  67. In the central nervous system, the brain weight may shrink __% to __% by age 80 years.
    10% to 20%
  68. In the 5 years preceding death, however, mental function is presumed to decline, a theory referred to as the ____ ____ ____.
    terminal drop hypothesis
  69. A bond between an infant and his or her parent or caregiver, in which the infant understands that his or her parents or caregivers will be responsive to his or her needs and and take care of him or her when he or she needs help.
    secure attachment
  70. Increasing cholesterol levels and decreased efficiency of the heart begins to become a concern for which age group?
    41-60 years
  71. When assessing an 80-year-old patient in shock, it is important to remember that:
    A. in older adults, it is especially common to observe a significant decrease in heart rate in response to shock.
    B. it is common to see a more significant increase in heart rate than what would be expected in younger adults.
    C. age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.
    D. the patient's cardiac output is able to increase by nearly 200% in response to the decrease in perfusion.
    C. age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. An infant or small child's airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed because:
    A. the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible.
    B. the tongue is proportionately small and can fall back into the throat.
    C. he or she has a long neck, which makes the trachea prone to collapse.
    D. the back of the head is flat, which prevents a neutral position.
    A. the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Which of the following is NOT a common factor that would affect a 75-year-old patient's vital signs?
    A. medications
    B. medical conditions
    C. overall health
    D. increased weight
    D. increased weight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. The atlas is the:
    A. attachment between the first and second cervical vertebrae.
    B. point where the ribs attach to the sternum.
    C. seventh cervical vertebra, which is easily palpable.
    D. first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the skull.
    D. first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the skull.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Contraction of the right ventricle causes:
    A. a return of blood from the pulmonary veins.
    B. blood to flow into the pulmonary circulation.
    C. ejection of blood into the systemic circulation.
    D. closure of the mitral and aortic valves.
    B. blood to flow into the pulmonary circulation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. The connecting nerve, a nerve of the peripheral nervous system, functions by:
    A. connecting motor nerves directly to the walls of the blood vessels.
    B. connecting sensory nerves directly to the posterior cerebral cortex.
    C. connecting the sensory and motor nerves and bypassing the brain.
    D. connecting the spinal cord directly to the target muscle or organ.
    C. connecting the sensory and motor nerves and bypassing the brain.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when:
    A. stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.
    B. the DRG stops and the process of expiration begins.
    C. excess carbon dioxide needs to be eliminated from the body.
    D. the brain stem senses that there is a low amount of oxygen in the blood.
    A. stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. What three bones make up the shoulder girdle?
    A. acromion, humerus, clavicle
    B. clavicle, scapula, humerus
    C. acromion, clavicle, scapula
    D. acromion, scapula, humerus
    B. clavicle, scapula, humerus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of:
    A. beta-1 receptors.
    B. beta-2 receptors.
    C. alpha-2 receptors.
    D. alpha-1 receptors.
    A. beta-1 receptors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. During each heartbeat, ___________ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV)
    A. 100 to 120 mL
    B. 40 to 50 mL
    C. 70 to 80 mL
    D. 90 to 100 mL
    C. 70 to 80 mL
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. The 10th cranial nerve is the___________ and is responsible for_____________.
    A. vagus / slowing the heart rate
    B. oculomotor / vision
    C. oculomotor / pupillary constriction
    D. vagus / pupillary constriction
    A. vagus / slowing the heart rate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. The primary function of the right atrium is to:
    A. pump blood to the lungs for reoxygenation.
    B. pump blood to the pulmonary artery.
    C. receive blood from the pulmonary veins.
    D. receive blood from the vena cava.
    D. receive blood from the vena cava.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Both areas of the pons are used to:
    A. ensure that the lungs do not overinflate during breathing.
    B. set the base rate and depth of breathing in a healthy person.
    C. provide forced inspiration or expiration as needed.
    D. augment respirations during emotional or physical stress.
    D. augment respirations during emotional or physical stress.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Infants are often referred to as “belly breathers” because:
    A. an infant's ribs are brittle and are less able to expand.
    B. their diaphragm does not receive impulses from the brain.
    C. their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.
    D. their intercostal muscles are not functional.
    C. their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. The exocrine gland of the pancreas secretes:
    A. bile.
    B. pancreatic juice.
    C. glucose.
    D. insulin.
    B. pancreatic juice.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. What function does the pneumotaxic center serve?
    A. inhibits the DRG, but only affects the respiratory rate
    B. stimulates the DRG, resulting in longer, slower respirations
    C. stimulates the DRG, resulting in prolonged inspiration
    D. inhibits the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations
    D. inhibits the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of the:
    A. pubis and acetabulum.
    B. ilium, pubis, and sacrum.
    C. sacrum and ischium.
    D. ilium, ischium, and pubis.
    D. ilium, ischium, and pubis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Your ability to remain awake is a function of the:
    A. reticular activating system.
    B. cerebellum.
    C. pons and medulla.
    D. limbic system.
    A. reticular activating system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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