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Why do we study the Ocean?
The ocean gives life, for trade, food, transportation, weather, defense, oil, salt, water, and sand.
What is the world #1 mined resource?
What did the Polynesians contribute to ancient exploration?
- They sailed the Western Pacific an Southern Pacific.
- They figured out current patterns and wave patterns.
Where did the Vikings explore?
Norway ,Sweden and Denmark
Where did the Greeks explore and what did they contribute?
They explored the Mediterranean sea. They determined ocean depth with Lead Lines.
What are Lead Lines?
A Lead Lines is a rope with a sticky log on the end.
What did the Chinese contribute to Ocean exploration?
They had transverse bulkheads (water tight) and they used magnetic compasses.
Why did the Portuguese sail around Africa to India for trading?
The trading route through Turkey was cut off.
What trading ports did the Portuguese have in Africa?
- Cape Verde
- Genie Basal
What was the Portuguese colony in India?
Who developed the 3 mast ship?
Who was the first to sail around the world?
when did the Trans Atlantic Voyage start?
Where did the Trans Atlantic Voyage explore and in what order?
- 1. The Atlantic
- 2. The South Pacific
- 3. The Bering Sea
Who was the first to map the Gulf Stream?
What determined the major ocean currents?
The Gulf Stream
What does the Law of Gravity tell us?
That the ocean levels went up and down at a specific period.
What were the two Ocean agency's formed?
- 1.France in 1720
- 2. British Royal Navy
Who lead the most important Scientific trip in 1700's and were did they go?
- James Cook traveled to all of the Ocean Basins exp. the Arctic.
- He :
- -Made Charts of the Pacific and South Pacific
- -Determined depths to 2 ft.
- -Recorded wind patterrnes found the trade winds of the south pacific
- -He found Duldrums
What is a Duldrum?
A Duldrum is were there is little to no wind around the equator.
What major current did James Cook find?
How is the most Famous Person In US National Ocean survey?
What did Mathew Maury do?
He collected all ships and estimated the current direction , current speed climate, wind direction , depth maps and ocean sediment samples. He then put then in a book to aid in trade.
What was the name of Matthew Maurey's book?
"Physical Geography of the Ocean"
What ship was sent on the first purely scientific trip?
Where is Fisheries Research Center?
Cape Cod Massachusets
What did the Albatross ship study?
Gather more information on deep sea life and ocean currents.
When was Oceanography first recognized as a science?
In 1927 by the National Academy of Science- the Committee of Oceanography.
What did early Atmosphere consist of?
Hydrogen and Helium
Why did the early atmosphere change?
It was stripped away because our mass wasn't large enough to keep the light elements.
What is the primary reason for our present atmosphere?
Degassing of the earths interior through volcanic activity.
Where do most gases come from?
From recycled crust , through subduction zones and rift zones.
What are the major gases from Volcanic activity?
- 1. Water Vapor H2O
- 2. Carbon monoxide Co
- 3. Nitrogen N
- 4. Chlorine Cl
- 5 Hydrogen H
- 6. Argon At
- 7. Sulfur S
What else can also produce gases but not enough to produce the atmosphere?
What gas is the only gas not produced by volcanic activity?
What produced early Oxygen?
Blue green Alge
What is the first evidence of early oxygen?
What do banded Iron formations tell us?
The alternating layers in banded iron formations are thought to reflect the alternation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor conditions on the sea floor.
When we start finding Dolomites it indicates what?
Formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturated saline rich water. Salinity is mainly from continental weathering.
What is older the Oceans and Continents?
What is the oldest ocean?
The Pacific near Japan
What are examples of Tectonic activity on Continents?
Folding and faults
What are examples of Tectonic activity on Oceans?
- Margins, faults
- (Interior is relatively stable)
Where can you find Igneous activity on Continents?
Everywhere but concentrated along the margin. Felsic along subductions.
Where can you find Igneous activity on Oceans?
Constant rate along the Mid- Ocean Ridges
What did Sir Francis Bacon do?
Noted a parallelism of the Atlantic coast.
What did Alex Von Huboldt do?
Noted the Atlantic basin formed by erosion.
What did Antonio Pellegrini do?
Stated that North America, South America, Europe, and Africa roughly fit together.
What did Edward Forbes do?
Noted the similarities between animals between the continents.
What did Edward Suess do?
Noted that fossils postulated Gondwanaland and geological formations.
What did Arthur Holmes do?
- Studied radioactive decay. The heat produced should weaken the rock . The deeper in the earth .
- Thermal convection of the mantal. Basaltic Crust rides on the