Chm Chapter 1

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Chm Chapter 1
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2014-02-07 23:30:29
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chm 151
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Chapter 1
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  1. What is the scientific method?
    Process used by scientists to do research and verify work of others.
  2. Hypothesis?
    A tentative explanation of observartions
  3. What is a CONTROL in a experiment?
    This is the standard of comparison.

    What you compare other things to.
  4. What is a CONSTANT in a experiment?
    factors that remain unchanging
  5. What is theory?
    An explanation of a body of experiments and observations (supported by facts)
  6. What is a law?
    Summary of accepted facts of nature

    (formula usually)
  7. What are the 3 states of matter?
    solid, liquid, and gas
  8. Solid:

    Shape?
    Volume?
    Energy?
    • Definite shape
    • Definite volume
    • Low energy
  9. Liquid:

    Shape?
    Volume?
    Energy?
    Molecules movement?
    • NO definite shape
    • Definite volume
    • Moderate energy
    • Molecules move past each other
  10. Gas:

    Shape?
    Volume?
    Energy?
    Molecule movement?
    • NO definite shape
    • NO definite volume
    • High energy level
    • Molecules move fast
  11. What is matter?
    Anything with MASS and VOLUME
  12. What is a mixture?
    2 or more substances
  13. What is a pure substance?
    • is a form of matter that has a definite  composition and distinct properties
    • (like color, smell and taste...)

    Beakers with just Na, w/ just CO2 ...
  14. What is a Homogeneous Mixture?
    A mixture that is uniformed

    aka solutions

    (lemonade, gasoline, steel, dissolved sugar in water...)

  15. What is a Heterogeneous Mixture?
    A mixture that is NOT uniformed.

    (dirt, blood, milk...)

  16. What is a Physical PROPERTY? 

    Give Examples.
    Something that can be observed/measured without changing composition of a substance.

    Ex: color, malleable (in sheets), ductile (into wires), melting/ boiling point
  17. What is a chemical PROPERTY?

    Give Examples.
    The ability of a substance to combine with another substance.

    Ex: flammable, reactivity, combustibility
  18. What is a physical CHANGE?

    Give Examples.
    A change that happens without altering the chemical identity

    Ex: cutting paper, phase changes, sugar dissolves...
  19. What is a chemical CHANGE?

    Give Examples.
    Change that alters the chemical identity of a substance

    Ex: rust, corrosion, combustion, baking, plants growing
  20. What is an Extensive Property?

    Example?
    Prop. that depends on amount of matter

    Ex: mass, volume...
  21. What is an Intensive Property?

    Example?
    a Prop. that does NOT depend on amount of matter.

    Ex: density, temperature, color, conducts elect...
  22. When do you use scientific notation?
    • When # is in the thousands or greater
    • and
    • when # is in the thousandths or smaller

    Ex:   .00358  29,456
  23. What is the SI system?
    • Revised metric system (system internationale)
  24. State the Unit for the Quantity.

    Amount of substance?
    Electric current?
    Length?
    Mass?
    Time?
    • Amount of substance- mole
    • Electric current- ampere
    • Length- m
    • Mass- kg
    • Time- second

  25. Metric System memorization...Mean?
    Mean King Henry Died Unexpectedly Drinking Chocolate Milk Monday

    • T--G--M--K h da U d c m--μ--n--p
  26. 1 inch= cm?
    1 in. = 2.54 cm
  27. 1 mL = cm3 ?
    1 mL = 1cm3
  28. 1 mile = feet?
    1 mile= 5280 ft.
  29. Celsius 

    Freezing point?
    Boiling point?     (of pure water at sea level)
    • Freezing = 0°C
    • Boiling = 100°C
  30. Formula to convert 

    Celsius⇒ Kelvin
    K = °C + 273.15
  31. Formula to convert

    Kelvin⇒ Celsius
    °C = K - 273.15
  32. Formula to convert

    Celsius⇒ Fahrenheit
    °F = °C (1.8) + 32
  33. Formula for Density?
    D= mass/volume
  34. When adding or subtracting express answer in lowest # of?
    Decimal places!
  35. When multiplying or dividing express answer in lowest # of?
    Significant Figures (Sig Figs)
  36. How many sig figs in each number?

    0.0000532
    123543.
    1.0032
    • 3
    • 6
    • 5
  37. What is dimensional analysis?
    Using conversion factors to convert from one unit to another

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