Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
2014-02-07 23:33:19

Airway Management, Artificial Ventilation, and Oxygenation
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  1. Respiration
    Ventilation or Breathing

    • Broken down into 4 distinct components:
    • -Pulmonary Ventilation
    • -External Respiration
    • -Internal Respiration
    • -Cellular Respiration and Metabolism
  2. Pulmonary Ventilation
    Mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs
  3. External Respiration
    Alveoli/Capillary gas exchange

    Serves to oxygenate blood and eliminate carbon dioxide in the lungs
  4. Internal Respiration
    Cell/Capillary gas exchange

    Responsible for delivering oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from the cell
  5. Cellular Respiration and Metabolism
    Aerobic Metabolism

    Breaks down glucose with the presence of oxygen, produces high amount of ATP, releases carbon dioxide and water as by-product
  6. Upper Airway
    Extends from the nose and mouth to the cricoid cartilage (inferior portion of larynx)
  7. Pharynx
    The throat, or passageway for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx

    Passageway for food from mouth to esophagus
  8. Nasopharynx
    Air from the nasal passages
  9. Oropharynx
    Air entering from the mouth
  10. Epiglottis
    Small, leaf-shaped flap protecting trachea

    Acts as a valve that closes over the opening to larynx while food and drink are being swallowed
  11. Larynx
    Voice box, contains vocal cords

    • Anterior Portion:
    • -Thyroid Cartilage(Adam's Apple)
    • -Cricoid Cartilage
  12. Lower Airway
    Extends from the cricoid cartilage at the lower edge of the larynx to the alveoli of the lungs
  13. Trachea
    Passageway for air entering the lungs

    Extends from the larynx to the carina (point where trachea splits into right and left mainstem bronchi)
  14. Bronchi
    Extend from carina to lungs, where continue to divide into bronchioles

    Larger airways, contain cartilage
  15. Bronchioles
    Become increasingly smaller; lined with smooth muscle and mucous membrane
  16. Alveoli
    Bronchioles terminate in millions of tiny air sacs in lungs called alveoli

    Site for gas exchange between alveoli and blood in capillaries
  17. Pleural Space
    Small space that is at negative pressure
  18. Diaphragm
    Muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

    • Major muscle used in breathing
    • -60-70% of the effort of ventilation
  19. Intercostal Muscles
    Muscle between ribs

    Contracts during inhalation
  20. Oxygenation
    Process by which the blood and the cells become saturated with oxygen

    Results from internal and external respiration
  21. Hypoxemia
    Low oxygen content in arterial blood

    Typically occurs from a ventilation-perfusion mismatch
  22. Hypoxia
    Inadequacy in the amount of oxygen being delivered to the cells
  23. Cyanosis
    Bluish gray color, a late sign of hypoxia and may be found in and around several areas of the body including: lips, mouth, nose, fingernail beds, conjunctiva, oral mucosa
  24. Deoxygenated
    Low oxygen concentration, high in carbon dioxide
  25. Oxygenated
    High oxygen concentration, low carbon dioxide
  26. Hemoglobin
    Surface of red blood cells

    Responsible for picking up majority of oxygen in the blood (97%) carrying to capillaries
  27. Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift
    Should be used for opening the airway in a patient who has no suspected spinal injury
  28. Jaw-Thrust
    Used when spinal injury is suspected

    Jaw is displaced forward causing patients tongue to be pulled forward
  29. Oropharyngeal Airway
    Oral airway; semicircular device of hard plastic or rubber that holds the tongue away from back of airway

    Must be completely unresponsive
  30. Nasopharyngeal Airway
    Nasal Airway; curved hollow tube of soft plastic or rubber with a flange and a bevel
  31. Alveolar Ventilation
    The amount of air breathed in that reaches the alveoli
  32. Agonal Respirations
    Gasping type breaths