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Protuberance on surface of the brain?
a fold or groove seperating one gyrus from another
Menings 3 layers are?
1. dura mater
= just under skull
- 2. arachnoid mater =a fine, delicate membrane, the middle one of the three membranes or meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord, situated between
- the dura mater and the pia mater.
Pia Mater =
Lining the brain
What is between the Arachnoid mater and Pia Mater?
the Subarachnoid spaced= filled with CSF
Subdural Hematoma are usually caused by trauma resulting in _____ of viens in the subdural area and bleeding occurs between ___ mater & ____ mater?
Subdural Hematomas can be acute or ___?
Acute subdural hematomas "classic-shaken baby syndrom" are associated with?
high speed acceleration/deceleration injuries
60-80% mortality rate because the force required to cause them is associated with other severe brain injuries-
CHRONIC Subdural Hematoma occurs over days/weeks often due to minor ______? Most commonly in ____? Often stops by itself about___ good-complete recovery?
A1: head trauma
A2: elderly A3: 80%
Subdural Hematoma is seen in Elderly and Alcoholics with ____? as the veins in the _____ region are stretched further.
A1: Cerebral atrophy
Subdural Hematoma symptoms are?
increasing headache, confusion, difficulty walking, fluctuating levels of consciousness, irritability, numbness, lethargy, nausea, vomiting
EPIDURAL Hematoma is most associated with ______ e.g, bike accidents. Usually an _____ is ruptured causing rapid of out-flowing of blood.
Bleeding between the ___ mater & ___ increases intracranial pressure about 20% fatal
A1: Severe A2: artery
A3: Dura A4: skull
EPIDURAL Hematoma - may have lucid period after drama followed by loss of _____? Fixed or dilated pupil on side of ____? weakness on side of _____ injury? Hernation of ____ due to increased cranial pressure.
A1: consciousness A2: injury
A3: opposite A4: Medulla
EPIDURAL Hematoma - when the Dura is stripped from skull it causes tremendous ___?
And requires prompt ____ intervention?
A1: headaches A2: surgical
- blood clots caused by head trauma
- outside the brain but inside the skull.
Epidural hematoma lies outside and ___ the dura mater
(on top of)
subdural hematoma lies inside (beneath) the dura mater and ___ the arachnoid mater
Epidural hematomas are usually caused by bleeding from an ?
subdural hematomas are usually due to bleeding from ______ that drain blood away from the surface of the brain.
What are the Main 4 lobes?
Occipital lobes, parietal lobe, temporal, frontal lobe
Occipital lobe receives info from the eye if damaged from "stroke" can no longer produce visual images in the brain is called ___?
Cortical blindness- cannot visualize things or have dreams with visual images
Parietal Lobe is located between ___ and ____ lobe?
Parietal Lobe has 2 main areas. Area 1: Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Aka postcentral gyrus)? and Area 2 = ?
Parietal lobe Posterior to the primary Somatosensory cortex
Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Aka postcentral gyrus) is important for....?
touch sensations info from muscle stretch to receptors & joints from opposite side of the body
Parietal lobe Posterior to the primary Somatosensory cortex is important for...?
processing info regarding what is being felt, spatial awareness - e.g. where is an object- eye-hand movement coordination
Each location in the _____ Cortex gets sensory info from a specific location and each location on the ______ regulates movement to a specific motor area
A2: primary motor cortex
TEMPERAL LOBE is the primary cortical target for auditory info processing and advanced ____ processing that gives meaning to shapes/color
Wernicke's Area is located in the left___? and is important for ______?
A: temporal lobe B: understanding language
Under the Temporal Lobe are areas of the _____ system, amygdula and ____?
A: limbic B: hippocampus
Frontal Lobe is the primary ____ (aka precentral gyrus) - specialized for the control of ____ movements
a: cortex B: fine
Frontal lobe controls most of the movements on the opposite side aka ___?
Pre-Frontal Cortex- Functions specializes in working memory =? and making decisions and _____? *if damaged =?
A: short-term memory e.g., recent events like where you parked your car
b: recognizes sequences
** innapropriate/impulsive behavior