Chapter 5 The Human Body - Anatomy Physiology and the Body Systems

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Chapter 5 The Human Body - Anatomy Physiology and the Body Systems
2015-01-08 16:13:32
Chapter Human Body Anatomy Physiology Systems

Chapter 5 The Human Body - Anatomy, Physiology and the Body Systems
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  1. Considerations for a ripping pain in the upper chest radiating anterior to posterior?
    A. Stomach issue
    B. Aortic issue
    C. Gastrointestinal bleeding
    D. Heart problem
    B. Aortic issue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. If fluid backs up towards the body, which side of the heart is failing as a pump?
    A. Atria
    B. Ventricles
    C. Left side
    D. Right side
    D. Right side
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A special property of the heart muscle includes:
    A. Jumpability
    B. Automaticity
    C. Hibernation
    D. Resiliency
    • B. Automaticity
    • Heart can beat without being connected to the brain
  4. You patient has a blood clot in pulmonary circulation.  This is a problem with:
    A. Perfusion
    B. Ventilation
    C. Stroke Volume
    D. Cardiac Output
    A. Perfusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What part of the brain is affected by stroke?
  6. Damage to which nerve would cause pupil dilation in stroke?
    III - occulomotor nerve
  7. What is cranial nerve X?
  8. What is the function of the vagus nerve?
    same as a parasympathetic response
  9. What is the function of the occulomotor nerve?
  10. What is white matter composed of?
  11. front and back plane
    Coronal plane
  12. top and bottom plane
    Transverse (axial) plane
  13. left and right plane
    Sagittal (lateral) plane
  14. A special type of sagittal plane where the body is cut in half leaving equal left and right halves.
    Midsagittal plane (midline)
  15. Modified Trendelenburg’s position.  Supine with feet 6 to 12 inches higher than head.
    Shock position
  16. Sitting up with knees bent
    Fowler’s position
  17. Positioned on left side
    Recovery position
  18. Foundation on which the arms and legs are hung
    Axial skeleton
  19. The ____ ____ is the opening at the base of skull to allow the brain to connect to spinal cord.
    foramen magnum
  20. Posterior of cranium is called the ____.
  21. Lateral portions of cranium are called the ____ regions.
  22. Between the temporal regions and occiput are ____ regions.
  23. Forehead is ____ region.
  24. The cranium is made up of _ bones.
  25. Facial bones are made up of __ bones.
  26. Upper, nonmoveable jawbones
  27. Cheekbones
  28. Lower, moveable portion of jaw
  29. Orbits (eye sockets) include ____, ____, and  ____ bones of cranium.
    • zygomas
    • maxillae
    • frontal
  30. Spinal column is composed of __ bones.
  31. Cervical spine has _ vertebrae
  32. The thoracic spine has one pair of ribs attached to each of __ vertebrae.
  33. Lumbar spine has _ vertebrae
  34. Sacrum has _ vertebrae
  35. Sacrum joins the ____
  36. Coccyx has _ vertebrae
  37. The ____ ____ contains heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.
    thoracic cavity
  38. Three parts of the sternum from top to bottom:
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
  39. ____ skeleton: Arms, legs, their connection points, and pelvis
  40. Shoulder girdle is where three bones come together:
    • Clavicle (collarbone)
    • Scapula (shoulder blade)
    • Humerus (supporting bone of the arm)
  41. supporting bone of the arm
  42. Forearm consists of:
    radius and ulna
  43. Radius lies on the ____, or ____, side of forearm.  The ulna is on the ____, or ____, side of forearm.
    • lateral, thumb
    • medial, pinky
  44. _ bones in the wrist (____ bones)
    8, carpal
  45. _ metacarpals extend from the carpal bones
  46. The ____ are the base for each of the five fingers.
  47. The fingers are composed of bones called ____.
  48. The pelvis is a closed bony ring consisting of three bones:
    • Sacrum
    • Two pelvic bones
  49. Each pelvic bone is formed by fusion of the ____, ____, and ____.  These three bones are joined posteriorly by the ____.
    • ilium, ischium, and pubis
    • sacrum
  50. Anteriorly, the right pubis and left pubis are joined by a hard bony and cartilaginous joint with minimal motion. This area is called the ____ ____.
    pubic symphysis
  51. The ____ (thigh bone) is the longest bone in body.
  52. At the superior head of the bone is a round ball-like structure called the ____ ____.
    femoral head
  53. The femoral head is where the femur connects into the ____ (the pelvic girdle) by a ball-and-socket joint.
  54. The femur has two projections where major muscles of the thigh connect to the femur:
    • Greater trochanter (lateral superior)
    • Lesser trochanter (medial superior)
  55. shin/lower leg
  56. lower leg (not shin)
  57. The foot contains _ tarsal bones
  58. ____ and ____ are the largest bones of the foot
    • Talus
    • calcaneus
  59. ____ forms prominence of heel
  60. _ metatarsal bones form the substance of the foot
  61. Five toes formed by __ phalanges
  62. _ phalanges in the great toe and _ phalanges in each of the smaller toes
    • 2
    • 3
  63. There are more than ___ muscles in the body that attach to the bones of the skeleton.
  64. Most muscles of the body operate on the principle of ____ parts.
  65. Pharynx is c omposed of:
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  66. At the base of the laryngopharynx are two lumens, the ____ anteriorly and the ____ posteriorly.
    • larynx
    • esophagus
  67. ____ is the dividing line between the upper and lower airway.
  68. Adam’s apple or thyroid cartilage is the anterior part of the ____
  69. The ____ cartilage, or ____ ring, lies inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage; it forms the lowest portion of the larynx.
  70. Trachea ends at the ____ and divides into two tubes, the right and left mainstem bronchi, which enter the lungs and branch into smaller airways.
  71. The final divisions of the bronchi are called ____.
  72. The two lungs are held in place by:
    • Trachea
    • Arteries and veins
    • Pulmonary ligaments
  73. Right lung has _ lobes and left lung has _  lobes.
    3, 2
  74. The lungs are covered by smooth, glistening tissue called ____.
  75. Divides the thorax from the abdomen
  76. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts, enlarging the chest cavity, ____ the pressure in the lungs, and moving air in.
  77. During inhalation intercostal muscles ____, moving the ribs up and out, enlarging the chest cavity, decreasing the pressure in the lungs, and moving air in.
  78. Four muscles of breathing:
    • diaphragm
    • intercostals
    • abdominal muscles
    • pectorals
  79. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli and in tissues of the body.
  80. The passive process in which oxygen molecules move from an area with a higher concentration of oxygen molecules to an area of lower concentration.
  81. The ____ ____ automatically controls breathing if level of carbon dioxide or oxygen in arterial blood is too high or too low.
    brain stem
  82. The ____ ____ is the backup system that controls breathing.  It is less sensitive and less powerful than the carbon dioxide sensors in the brain stem.
    hypoxic drive
  83. The ____ keeps us breathing so we do not have to think about it and initiates the ventilation cycles.
  84. Medulla has two main portions:
    • Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
    • Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
  85. Respiratory group in the medulla that initiates inspiration and sets pattern for respirations
    Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
  86. Respiratory group in the medulla that provides for forced inspiration or expiration as needed
    Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
  87. ____ is simple movement of air into and out of the lungs.
  88. You provide ____ when you administer oxygen.
  89. The amount of air that is moved into or out of the lungs during a single breath.
    Tidal volume
  90. The gas that remains in the lungs to keep the lungs open.
    Residual volume
  91. The portion of the respiratory system that has no alveoli, and, therefore, little or no exchange of gas between air and blood occurs.
    Dead space
  92. The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs in 1 minute minus the dead space.
    Minute volume
  93. minute volume =
    Respiratory rate × tidal volume
  94. Systemic circulation carries oxygen-rich blood from the ____ ____ through the body and back to the ____ ____.
    • left ventricle
    • right atrium
  95. Pulmonary circulation carries oxygen-poor blood from the ____ ____ through the lungs and back to the ____ ____.
    • right ventricle
    • left atrium
  96. ____ divides right and left sides of the heart.
  97. Right side of the heart receives blood from the ____ of the body.
  98. The blood enters the heart from the superior and inferior ____ ____ into the right atrium and fills the right ventricle.
    venae cavae
  99. As the right ventricle contracts, blood flows into the ____ artery and the ____ circulation system.
  100. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary ____ into the ____ atrium and passes through a valve into the ____ ventricle.
    • veins
    • left
  101. When the left ventricle (most muscular of pumping chambers) contracts, the blood is pumped into the ____ and then to the arteries of the body.
  102. Adult and adolescent pulse:
    60 to 100 beats/min
  103. Child pulse:
    70 to 140 beats/min
  104. Toddler pulse:
    90 to 150 beats/min
  105. Infant pulse:
    100 to 160 beats/min
  106. The amount of blood moved by one beat.
    Stroke volume (SV)
  107. The amount of blood moved in 1 minute.
    Cardiac output (CO)
  108. CO =
    HR × SV
  109. In 1 minute, the body’s entire blood volume (_ to  _L) is circulated through all the vessels.
    5, 6
  110. In _ minute(s), the body’s entire blood volume (5 to 6 L) is circulated through all the vessels.
  111. The electrical charges on the surface of the muscle cell of the heart change from positive to negative.
  112. The heart returns to its resting state, and the positive charge is restored to the surface
  113. Electrical impulses begin high in the atria at the ____ node, travel to the ____ node and bundle of ____, and then move through the ____ fibers to the ventricles.
    • sinoatrial
    • atrioventricular
    • His
    • Purkinje
  114. Principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body
  115. The aorta divides at the level of the umbilicus into the ____ arteries
  116. Artery originating at the right ventricle and    carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
  117. -Major artery of the neck
    -Supplies the head and brain with blood
    -Palpation site for pulse on either side of the neck
  118. -The major artery of the thigh
    -Supplies the lower extremities with bloodc
    -Palpation site for pulse in the groin area (the crease between the abdomen and thigh)
  119. Palpation site for pulse on the posterior surface of the medial malleolus
    Posterior tibial
  120. Palpation site for pulse on the anterior surface of the foot
    Dorsalis pedis
  121. -Major artery of the upper extremity
    -Supplies blood to the arm
    -Palpation site for pulse on the inside of the arm between the elbow and the shoulder
    -Used when determining blood pressure (BP) with a BP cuff and a stethoscope
  122. -Major artery of the lower arm
    -Palpation site for pulse at the thumb side of the wrist
  123. Tiny blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules
  124. Major veins
    vena cavae
  125. ____ vena cava carries blood returning from the head, neck, shoulders, and upper extremities.  ____ vena cava carries blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities.  These two veins join at the ____ atrium.
    • Superior
    • Inferior
    • right
  126. Where is the spleen located?
  127. Worn out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood in this organ.
  128. The ____ is highly vascular and is particularly susceptible to injury from blunt trauma; can lead to severe internal bleeding.
  129. When the left ventricle of heart contracts, it pumps blood from ventricle into aorta.
  130. When muscle of ventricle relaxes, the ventricle fills with blood.
  131. blood pressure cuff
  132. The circulation of blood in an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the current needs of the cells.
  133. ____ is also called hypoperfusion and is the inadequate circulation of blood through an organ or tissue.
  134. Blood vessels have ____-____ receptors.  When stimulated, blood vessels constrict, increasing blood pressure.
  135. The heart and lungs have ____-____ receptors.  When stimulated, heart rate increases.  Bronchi in the lungs dilate allowing more air to be inhaled and exhaled.
  136. The cerebrum has _ lobes.
  137. Brain stem comprises three areas
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla oblongata
  138. Peripheral nervous system is divided into two portions:
    • Somatic nervous system (voluntary)
    • Autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
  139. Autonomic nervous system is split into two areas:
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
  140. RUQ Contains:
    liver, gallbladder, and a portion of the colon
  141. LUQ Contains:
    stomach, spleen, and a portion of the colon
  142. RLQ Contains:
    • two portions of the large intestine:
    • Cecum (appendix is attached to this)
    • Ascending colon
  143. LLQ Contains:
    the descending and sigmoid portions of the colon
  144. Salivary glands produce __ L of saliva daily
  145. Flat, solid organ that lies below and behind the liver and stomach, and behind the peritoneum.  Contains two kinds of glands, exocrine and endocrine
  146. Exocrine glands of the pancreas secrete ____ ____ containing enzymes that aid in digestion of fat, starch, and protein.
    pancreatic juice
  147. The endocrine portion of the pancreas, called islets of Langerhans, is where ____ is produced.
  148. ____ has many functions:
    -Filtering harmful substances
    -Forming the factors needed for blood clotting and normal plasma production
    -Principal organ for storing sugar or starch for immediate use by the body for energy
  149. The major function of the colon is to absorb the final __% to __% of digested food and water from the intestine to form solid stool.
    5, 10
  150. The appendix is a tube _ to _ inches long that opens into the cecum (first part of large intestine) in the RLQ of the abdomen.
    3 to 4
  151. Enzymes are added to food by what five things:
    • salivary glands
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • small intestine
  152. Glands that regulates stress response, fight-or-flight response
  153. Glands that regulates serum calcium
  154. Gland that regulates metabolism
  155. The ____ ____ is located immediately behind the pubic symphysis in the pelvic cavity.
    urinary bladder
  156. ____ is critical to diffusion.
  157. The pressure of water to move, typically into the capillary, as the result of the presence of plasma proteins.
    oncotic pressure
  158. Pertaining to the nerves that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, or noradrenaline.  The term also refers to the receptors acted on my norepinephrine.
  159. What is the total lung capacity of the average adult male
    6,000 mL
  160. Abnormalities in metabolism are MOST likely caused by dysfunction of the:
    A. parathyroid gland.
    B. pancreas.
    C. adrenal gland.
    D. thyroid gland.
    B. pancreas.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. Activities such as walking, talking, and writing are regulated exclusively by the:
    A. somatic nervous system.
    B. involuntary nervous system.
    C. central nervous system.
    D. autonomic nervous system.
    A. somatic nervous system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. Relative to the adult's airway, the child's:
    A. mouth and nose are proportionately larger.
    B. trachea is smaller, softer, and less flexible.
    C. tongue takes up less space in the pharynx.
    D. pharynx is smaller and less deeply curved.
    D. pharynx is smaller and less deeply curved.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Trauma to the __________ lobe of the brain would likely result in visual disturbances.
    A. temporal
    B. frontal
    C. parietal
    D. occipital
    D. occipital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when:
    A. the brain stem senses that there is a low amount of oxygen in the blood.
    B. the DRG stops and the process of expiration begins.
    C. excess carbon dioxide needs to be eliminated from the body.
    D. stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.
    D. stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. The average adult has approximately ___________ of blood in his or her body.
    A. 3 L
    B. 5 L
    C. 4 L
    D. 6 L
    D. 6 L
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Which of the following statements regarding the medulla oblongata is correct?
    A. The medulla reduces the rate and depth of breathing if it detects an increase in carbon dioxide levels.
    B. The medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.
    C. The medulla's primary role is to increase your level of oxygen, not to decrease your level of carbon dioxide.
    D. The medulla is a portion of the cerebrum and primarily responds to an increase in the pH of CSF.
    B. The medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. Bones of the foot from top to bottom excluding the heel (six bones):
    • medial malleolus
    • talus
    • navicular
    • medial cuneiform
    • metatarsals
    • phelanges
  168. What quadrant is most of the stomach?
  169. What quadrants are the small intestines?
    all four
  170. What is the most superior bone that can be palpated?  What cartilage follows inferior to this bone?
    • hyoid bone in the neck
    • thyroid cartilage
    • cricoid cartilage
  171. What percent water is the body composed?
  172. What percent fluid is intracellular versus extracellular?
    65 intracellular and 35 extracellular
  173. fluid between cell
    interstitial fluid
  174. fluid inside veins and arteries
  175. What percent fluid is intravascular?  Why is it important?
    • 10%
    • it has the greatest effect on BP
  176. What percent is an isotonic salt solution?
  177. What is the blood's pH range?
  178. A ____ solution has a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell causing water to rush in and the cell to ____.
    • hypotonic
    • lyse
  179. A ____ solution has a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell causing water to rush out and the cell to ____.
    • hypertone
    • crenate
  180. Blood consists of __% plasma, __% RBCs, and __% WBCs and platelets.
    • 55
    • 45
    • <1
  181. What happens if the left side of the heart backs up?
    pulmonary edema or crackles
  182. BP=
    cardiac output x peripheral vascular resistance
  183. CO=
    stroke volume x heart rate
  184. minute volume =
    tidal volume x resp. rate
  185. What does a "match" refer to in breathing?
    for every four liters of air breathed in, 5 L of blood is perfused
  186. When does a mismatch occur?
  187. In a mismatch and when ventilation is the problem, it's called:
    dead spacing
  188. In a mismatch and when perfusion is the problem, it's called:
  189. Where is the hypoxic drive mechanism located and what does it do?
    • aorta and carotid artories
    • it detects low levels of oxygen
  190. An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of:
    A. beta-2 receptors.
    B. beta-1 receptors.
    C. alpha-1 receptors.
    D. alpha-2 receptors.
    B. beta-1 receptors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is typically unique to infants and children?
    A. irregular breathing pattern
    B. unequal breath sounds
    C. unequal chest expansion
    D. seesaw respirations
    D. seesaw respirations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  192. During each heartbeat, ___________ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV).
    • A. 70 to 80 mL 
    • B. 90 to 100 mL
    • C. 100 to 120 mL
    • D. 40 to 50 mL
  193. The cranial nerves are a part of which nervous system?
    peripheral nervous system