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2014-02-08 03:01:02

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  1. The physiological process that enables us to exchange carbon dioxide, the primary product of cellular respiration, for fresh air.
  2. (or ventilation rate) The rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung.
  3. Commonly known as breathing, is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an animal and its environment.
    External Respiration
  4. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and cells in different tissues of one’s body.
    Internal Respiration
  5. Divided into three sequential series of reactions: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
    Cellular Respiration
  6. Includes the nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx.
    Upper Respiratory Tract
  7. Includes the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs.
    Lower Respiratory Tract
  8. A hollow apace behind the nose, this cavity is separated from the cranial cavity by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and from the oral cavity by the hard plate.
    Nasal Cavity
  9. Medially divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions.
    Nasal Septum
  10. (turbinate bones) Curl out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity on each side, forming passageways called the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses. Supports the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity and help increase its surface area.
    Nasal Conchae
  11. Posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. It is a passageway for food moving from the oral cavity to the esophagus and for air passing between the nasal cavity and the larynx.
  12. An enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea. A passageway for air moving in and out of the trachea and prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea.
  13. The combination of the vocal folds and the space in between the folds (the rima glottidis).
  14. A flap of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. It projects obliquely upwards behind the tongue and the hyoid bone, pointing dorsally.
  15. An airway through which respiratory air passes in organisms. In vertebrates, it is a flexible cylindrical tube about 2.5 centimeters in diameter and 12.5 centimeters in length and is held open by up to 20 C-shaped ring of cartilage, and may also be known as the “windpipe”.
  16. A bronchus (plureal bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. No gas exchange takes place in this part of the lungs.
    Bronchial Tree
  17. (also known as inhalation) Is the movement of air from the external environment, through the air ways, and into the alveoli.
  18. (also known as expiration) The forces responsible for normal resting expiration that come from elastic recoil of lung tissues and from surface tension.
  19. A force that makes it difficult to inflate the alveoli and may collapse them.
    Surface Tension
  20. A type of alveolar cells that synthesize a mixture of lipoproteins that are secreted continuously into alveolar air spaces, reducing the alveoli’s tendency to collapse especially when lung volumes are low.
  21. Inferior to the lungs, consisting of an anterior group of skeletal muscle fibers (costal fibers) that originate from the ribs and sternum, and a posterior group (crural fibers) that originate from the vertebrae.
  22. Associated with the cervical plexus, the phrenic nerves carry impulses that stimulate the muscle fibers of the diaphragm to contract.
    Phrenic Nerves
  23. As the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles relax following inspiration, the elastic tissues cause the lungs to recoil, and they return to their original shapes.
    Elastic Recoil
  24. PV=K: Gases have various properties which we can observe with our senses, including the gas pressure, temperature, mass, and the volume which contains the gas. Careful, scientific observation has determined that these variables are related to one another, and the values of these properties determine the state of the gas. In the mid 1600’s, he studied the relationship between the pressure p and the volume v of a confined gas held at a constant temperature. Boyle observed that the product of the pressure and volume are observed to be nearly constant. The product of pressure and volume is exactly a constant for an ideal gas. P * V = constant.
    Boyles Law
  25. A unit of pressure, that is equal to approximately 1.316 x 10^-3 atmospheres or 133.3 pascals.