Nerve Tissue

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  1. What are the two cell types of the nervous system ?
    • Neurons 
    • Neuroglia -(supporting cells)
  2. what makes up the CNS ?
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  3. What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
  4. What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
  5. What are the functional units of the Nervous system ?
    Nerve cell / Neurons
  6. What is the function of the Neuroglia ?
    Support and protect the neurons and participate in neural activity , neural nutrition , and the defense processes of the CNS
  7. What is a  collection of cell bodies in the CNS is called a nucleus ? What would be the equivalent in the PNS ? What the are three nuclei in the cerebrum known collectively as ? 


    -Basal ganglia
  8. What should the Basal Ganglia really be called ? misnomer as they should be called nuclei.
  9. What is grey matter ? What makes it up ?
    -Grey matter, which has a pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies,dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are.
  10. What is white matter ?
    -White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
  11. What is a nerve impulse or action potential for ?
    Transmission of information to other neurons , transmission of information to muscles and glands
  12. What are the fundamental functions of the nervous system ?
    Detection ,analysis ,integration of all information. Organization and coordination of most functions of the body
  13. Explain the embryonic ectoderm sequence ?
    • Notochord 
    • Neural tube
    • Neural groove
    • Neural tube
    • Neural crest
  14. What are the derivatives of the neural crest cells ?
    • -Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla) 
    • -Melanocytes 
    • -odontoblasts 
    • -Pia and Arachanoid matter cells
    • -sensory neurons of the spinal and cranial ganglia
    • Schwann cells of the peripheral axons
    • Satellite cells of peripheral ganglia
  15. Identify the portions and structures ?
    Motor end plates
    Collateral branch
    Schwann Cells 
    Peripheral Nervous System,
    Central Nervous system
    Nodes of Ranvier 
    Collateral Axonal branch
    Myelin Sheath
    Initial segment of axon
    Axon hilock
    Nissl bodies 

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  16. What is the function of Dendrites ?
    Receive stimuli
  17. What is another name for the cell body of the Neuron ?
  18. What is the function of the Axon ?
    Conducts impulses
  19. What is the terminal arborization ?
    It is the branched distal portion of the Axon
  20. What are the end bulbs or boutons of the Axon ?
  21. Can neurons be classified by size and shape ?
  22. Identify these structures and  ?
    Pyramidal cell ( cerebral cortex)
    Purkinje cell (cerebellum)
    Neuron of optic area 
    Hypophyseal secreting neuron
    Spinal cord motor neuron
    Central Neuron of the Autonomic system (Ganglionic neuron of the autonomic nervous system)

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  23. Explain multipolar , bipolar , and pseuduonipolar neurons ?

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  24. What is the function of motor neurons ? other name ?
    They are "Efferent Neurons" and they control effector organs such muscles fibers , exocrine and endocrine glands.
  25. What is the function of sensory neurons ? other name ?
    They are "Afferent Neurons " that are involved in sensory stimuli from the environment and with in the body
  26. What is the function of "Interneurons" ?
    They establish a relationships among other neurons forming complex functional chains or circuits
  27. Define perikaryon/ soma ?
    It is the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm .
  28. Is the Neuron nucleus Euchromatic and does it stain pale ?
  29. Where are the polyribosomes / nissl bodies located on the neuron ?
    Around the soma / perikaryon .
  30. Where is the Golgi complex located on the Neuron ?
    located only in the perikaryon  , makes transfers and secretory vesicles
  31. Where is the mitochondria located in the Neuron ?
    In axon terminals , scattered throughout the cytoplasm
  32. Are Intermediate filaments abundant in perikaryons ?What are they called ? What is the diameter ?


    -10 nm
  33. WHEN intermediate filaments are  IMPREGNATED with C¯ Ag , what do they form ?
  34. How big are the microtubules in the perikaryon ?
    24nm diamter
  35. What is lipofuscin ?
    It is the residue of undigested material by lysosomes
  36. What plain term for arborization?
  37. Does the dendritic cytoplasm have golgi complexes ?
  38. Are Nissly bodies and mitochondria present in dendrites ?
    Yes , but not in thin dendrites
  39. What are the spines used for that surround the dendrites ?
    For synaptic actions
  40. Does the axon hillock have RE.R. OR RIBOSOMES ?
  41. What is the plasma membrane of the axon called ? What is the plasma called ?

  42. What are collateral branches ?
    axon that returns back to the cell body
  43. Explain the following ?
  44. What are two excitatory neurotransmitters ?
    acetylcholine , Norepinephrine
  45. What are some inhibitory neurotransmitters ?
    • Glycine 
    • Serotonin
  46. Identify and name the structures ?
    Axon ending (synaptic end bulb)
    Synaptic vesicles
    Synaptic cleft
    Presynaptic membrane
    Postsynaptic membrane
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  47. What are the five neurotransmitter classifications ?
    • Acetylcholine 
    • Biogenic Amines
    • Amino Acids 
    • Peptides
    • Novel Messengers
  48. What two categories  makes up biogenic amines (Emotional and Biological clock) ?
    • Indolamines 
    • Catecholamines
  49. What makes up Indolamines ?
    • Serotonin
    • Histamine
  50. What makes up Catecholamines ?
    • Dopamine
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  51. What makes up the Amino Acid neurotransmitters ?  Where can they only be found ?
    • GABA 
    • GLycine
    • Aspartate 
    • Glutamate 

  52. What makes up the peptide neurotransmitters ? Are they natural opiates ?
    Substance P , Beta endorphins , Dynorphin , enkephalins.

    Yes , opiates reduce pain
  53. What are the novel messengers and there function ?
    • Nitric Oxide (NO) -learning , memory
    • Carbon Monoxide - cGMP reg, brain
  54. Name the Neuroglial cells ?
    • Microglia
    • Oligodendrocytes 
    • Ependymal cells
    • Astrocytes
  55. What are astrocytes ? What are the pedicles ? Where can they be found ?
    -They are cells that connect the blood brain barrier in the brain , they also make scar tissue after CNS injury

    -Pedicles are the ends of the astrocytes

    -The periphery of the brain and the spinal cord , located under the pia mater
  56. What two types of astrocytes are there ?
    Fibrous-long slender smooth processes

    Photoplasmic-abundant granular cytoplasm.
  57. Where can Oligodendrocytes be found ? What is there function ?
    Perform myelination of the CNS , it can be found in the grey and white matter
  58. What is the function of microglia cells ?
  59. What are the function of ependymal cells ?
  60. Nerve fibers constitute what ?
    • Tracts if Brain
    • Spinal cord 
    • Peripheral nerves
  61. What do the descending tracts become ?
    • Direct (Pyramidal)
    • Indirect (Extrapyramidal)
  62. What make up the ascending tracts ?
    • Specific (Lemniscal)
    • Nonspecific (Anterolateral)
    • Spinocerebellar
  63. What does the Specific (Leminiscal) branch into ? What is there function ?
    Fasciculus Cuneatus :Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense (upper limb & sup. body trunk)

    Fasciculus Gracilis : Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense, but(lower limbs & inferiorboby turnk)
  64. What does the Spinocerebellar branch into ? What is there function ?
    Posterior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)

    Superior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)
  65. Discuss the descending tracts ?
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  66. What is the mesaxon ?
    is a pair of parallel plasma membranes of a Schwann cell, marking the point of edge-to-edge contact by the Schwann cell encircling the axon

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  67. What are the Major dense lines of myelinated fibers ?
    fusion of cytoplasmic surfaces of schwann cell
  68. What are intraperiod lines of the myelinated fibers ?
    close contact , but not fusion , of the extracellular surfaces of adjacent layers of schwann cell membrane.
  69. Which area is rich in unmyelinated neurons ?
    CNS or PNS ?
  70. What is the chemical mediator of postangleonic of sympatheitc system is ?
  71. Chemical mediator of pre- & post-ganglionics of parasympathetic is ?
  72. What is an aggregation of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS ?
    Nerve ganglion
  73. What is dorsal root ganglia for ?
  74. The body of each ganglion cell is enveloped by a layer of what ?
    satellite cells
  75. What type of neurons are the dorsal root ganglia ?
    pseudopolar neurons
  76. What dorsal root ganglia are the only ones that are bipolar ?
    ones from the acoustic nerve
  77. Autonomic ganglia are bulbous dilations in autonomic nerves ? T or F
  78. Autonomic ganglia have multipolar neurons and Eccentric nuclei ? T of F
  79. What does white matter contain ?
    fibrous astrocytes, cicroglial cells
  80. What does the grey matter contain ?
    perikaryons, protoplasmic astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,microglial cells
  81. what do a majority of the cells look like in the cerebrum ?
    pyramidal , stellate , or spindle shape
  82. What are the three layers of the cerebellum ?
    • Outer molecular layer
    • Purkinje cell
    • Inner granule layer
Card Set:
Nerve Tissue
2014-02-11 20:40:24

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