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What are the two cell types of the nervous system ?
- Neuroglia -(supporting cells)
what makes up the CNS ?
Brain and Spinal Cord
What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
- NERVE FIBERS
- NERVE GANGLIA - (SMALL AGGREGATES OF N.CELLS)
What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
NERVE FIBERSNERVE GANGLIA (SMALL AGREGATES OF N.CELLS)
What are the functional units of the Nervous system ?
Nerve cell / Neurons
What is the function of the Neuroglia ?
Support and protect the neurons and participate in neural activity , neural nutrition , and the defense processes of the CNS
What is a collection of cell bodies in the CNS is called a nucleus ? What would be the equivalent in the PNS ? What the are three nuclei in the cerebrum known collectively as ?
What should the Basal Ganglia really be called ? misnomer as they should be called nuclei.
What is grey matter ? What makes it up ?
-Grey matter, which has a pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies,dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are.
What is white matter ?
-White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
What is a nerve impulse or action potential for ?
Transmission of information to other neurons , transmission of information to muscles and glands
What are the fundamental functions of the nervous system ?
Detection ,analysis ,integration of all information. Organization and coordination of most functions of the body
Explain the embryonic ectoderm sequence ?
- Neural tube
- Neural groove
- Neural tube
- Neural crest
What are the derivatives of the neural crest cells ?
- -Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla)
- -Pia and Arachanoid matter cells
- -sensory neurons of the spinal and cranial ganglia
- Schwann cells of the peripheral axons
- Satellite cells of peripheral ganglia
Identify the portions and structures ?
Motor end plates
Peripheral Nervous System,
Central Nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier
Collateral Axonal branch
Initial segment of axon
What is the function of Dendrites ?
What is another name for the cell body of the Neuron ?
What is the function of the Axon ?
What is the terminal arborization ?
It is the branched distal portion of the Axon
What are the end bulbs or boutons of the Axon ?
DILATION OF ARBORIZATION – PART OF SYNAPSE
Can neurons be classified by size and shape ?
Identify these structures and ?
Pyramidal cell ( cerebral cortex)
Purkinje cell (cerebellum)
Neuron of optic area
Hypophyseal secreting neuron
Spinal cord motor neuron
Central Neuron of the Autonomic system (Ganglionic neuron of the autonomic nervous system)
Explain multipolar , bipolar , and pseuduonipolar neurons ?
What is the function of motor neurons ? other name ?
They are "Efferent Neurons" and they control effector organs such muscles fibers , exocrine and endocrine glands.
What is the function of sensory neurons ? other name ?
They are "Afferent Neurons " that are involved in sensory stimuli from the environment and with in the body
What is the function of "Interneurons" ?
They establish a relationships among other neurons forming complex functional chains or circuits
Define perikaryon/ soma ?
It is the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm .
Is the Neuron nucleus Euchromatic and does it stain pale ?
Where are the polyribosomes / nissl bodies located on the neuron ?
Around the soma / perikaryon .
Where is the Golgi complex located on the Neuron ?
located only in the perikaryon , makes transfers and secretory vesicles
Where is the mitochondria located in the Neuron ?
In axon terminals , scattered throughout the cytoplasm
Are Intermediate filaments abundant in perikaryons ?What are they called ? What is the diameter ?
WHEN intermediate filaments are IMPREGNATED with C¯ Ag , what do they form ?
How big are the microtubules in the perikaryon ?
What is lipofuscin ?
It is the residue of undigested material by lysosomes
What plain term for arborization?
Does the dendritic cytoplasm have golgi complexes ?
Are Nissly bodies and mitochondria present in dendrites ?
Yes , but not in thin dendrites
What are the spines used for that surround the dendrites ?
For synaptic actions
Does the axon hillock have RE.R. OR RIBOSOMES ?
What is the plasma membrane of the axon called ? What is the plasma called ?
What are collateral branches ?
axon that returns back to the cell body
Explain the following ?
What are two excitatory neurotransmitters ?
acetylcholine , Norepinephrine
What are some inhibitory neurotransmitters ?
Identify and name the structures ?
Axon ending (synaptic end bulb)
What are the five neurotransmitter classifications ?
- Biogenic Amines
- Amino Acids
- Novel Messengers
What two categories makes up biogenic amines (Emotional and Biological clock) ?
What makes up Indolamines ?
What makes up Catecholamines ?
What makes up the Amino Acid neurotransmitters ? Where can they only be found ?
What makes up the peptide neurotransmitters ? Are they natural opiates ?
Substance P , Beta endorphins , Dynorphin , enkephalins.
Yes , opiates reduce pain
What are the novel messengers and there function ?
- Nitric Oxide (NO) -learning , memory
- Carbon Monoxide - cGMP reg, brain
Name the Neuroglial cells ?
- Ependymal cells
What are astrocytes ? What are the pedicles ? Where can they be found ?
-They are cells that connect the blood brain barrier in the brain , they also make scar tissue after CNS injury
-Pedicles are the ends of the astrocytes
-The periphery of the brain and the spinal cord , located under the pia mater
What two types of astrocytes are there ?
Fibrous-long slender smooth processes
Photoplasmic-abundant granular cytoplasm.
Where can Oligodendrocytes be found ? What is there function ?
Perform myelination of the CNS , it can be found in the grey and white matter
What is the function of microglia cells ?
What are the function of ependymal cells ?
GIVE RISE TO CHOROID PLEXUS WHICH PRODUCES CSF
Nerve fibers constitute what ?
- Tracts if Brain
- Spinal cord
- Peripheral nerves
What do the descending tracts become ?
- Direct (Pyramidal)
- Indirect (Extrapyramidal)
What make up the ascending tracts ?
- Specific (Lemniscal)
- Nonspecific (Anterolateral)
What does the Specific (Leminiscal) branch into ? What is there function ?
Fasciculus Cuneatus :Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense (upper limb & sup. body trunk)
Fasciculus Gracilis : Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense, but(lower limbs & inferiorboby turnk)
What does the Spinocerebellar branch into ? What is there function ?
Posterior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)
Superior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)
Discuss the descending tracts ?
What is the mesaxon ?
is a pair of parallel plasma membranes of a Schwann cell, marking the point of edge-to-edge contact by the Schwann cell encircling the axon
What are the Major dense lines of myelinated fibers ?
fusion of cytoplasmic surfaces of schwann cell
What are intraperiod lines of the myelinated fibers ?
close contact , but not fusion , of the extracellular surfaces of adjacent layers of schwann cell membrane.
Which area is rich in unmyelinated neurons ?
CNS or PNS ?
What is the chemical mediator of postangleonic of sympatheitc system is ?
Chemical mediator of pre- & post-ganglionics of parasympathetic is ?
What is an aggregation of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS ?
What is dorsal root ganglia for ?
The body of each ganglion cell is enveloped by a layer of what ?
What type of neurons are the dorsal root ganglia ?
What dorsal root ganglia are the only ones that are bipolar ?
ones from the acoustic nerve
Autonomic ganglia are bulbous dilations in autonomic nerves ? T or F
Autonomic ganglia have multipolar neurons and Eccentric nuclei ? T of F
What does white matter contain ?
fibrous astrocytes, cicroglial cells
What does the grey matter contain ?
perikaryons, protoplasmic astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,microglial cells
what do a majority of the cells look like in the cerebrum ?
pyramidal , stellate , or spindle shape
What are the three layers of the cerebellum ?
- Outer molecular layer
- Purkinje cell
- Inner granule layer