Nerve Tissue

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Nerve Tissue
2014-02-11 15:40:24

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  1. What are the two cell types of the nervous system ?
    • Neurons 
    • Neuroglia -(supporting cells)
  2. what makes up the CNS ?
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  3. What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
  4. What makes up the peripheral nervous system ?
  5. What are the functional units of the Nervous system ?
    Nerve cell / Neurons
  6. What is the function of the Neuroglia ?
    Support and protect the neurons and participate in neural activity , neural nutrition , and the defense processes of the CNS
  7. What is a  collection of cell bodies in the CNS is called a nucleus ? What would be the equivalent in the PNS ? What the are three nuclei in the cerebrum known collectively as ? 


    -Basal ganglia
  8. What should the Basal Ganglia really be called ? misnomer as they should be called nuclei.
  9. What is grey matter ? What makes it up ?
    -Grey matter, which has a pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies,dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are.
  10. What is white matter ?
    -White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
  11. What is a nerve impulse or action potential for ?
    Transmission of information to other neurons , transmission of information to muscles and glands
  12. What are the fundamental functions of the nervous system ?
    Detection ,analysis ,integration of all information. Organization and coordination of most functions of the body
  13. Explain the embryonic ectoderm sequence ?
    • Notochord 
    • Neural tube
    • Neural groove
    • Neural tube
    • Neural crest
  14. What are the derivatives of the neural crest cells ?
    • -Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla) 
    • -Melanocytes 
    • -odontoblasts 
    • -Pia and Arachanoid matter cells
    • -sensory neurons of the spinal and cranial ganglia
    • Schwann cells of the peripheral axons
    • Satellite cells of peripheral ganglia
  15. Identify the portions and structures ?
    Motor end plates
    Collateral branch
    Schwann Cells 
    Peripheral Nervous System,
    Central Nervous system
    Nodes of Ranvier 
    Collateral Axonal branch
    Myelin Sheath
    Initial segment of axon
    Axon hilock
    Nissl bodies 

  16. What is the function of Dendrites ?
    Receive stimuli
  17. What is another name for the cell body of the Neuron ?
  18. What is the function of the Axon ?
    Conducts impulses
  19. What is the terminal arborization ?
    It is the branched distal portion of the Axon
  20. What are the end bulbs or boutons of the Axon ?
  21. Can neurons be classified by size and shape ?
  22. Identify these structures and  ?
    Pyramidal cell ( cerebral cortex)
    Purkinje cell (cerebellum)
    Neuron of optic area 
    Hypophyseal secreting neuron
    Spinal cord motor neuron
    Central Neuron of the Autonomic system (Ganglionic neuron of the autonomic nervous system)

  23. Explain multipolar , bipolar , and pseuduonipolar neurons ?

  24. What is the function of motor neurons ? other name ?
    They are "Efferent Neurons" and they control effector organs such muscles fibers , exocrine and endocrine glands.
  25. What is the function of sensory neurons ? other name ?
    They are "Afferent Neurons " that are involved in sensory stimuli from the environment and with in the body
  26. What is the function of "Interneurons" ?
    They establish a relationships among other neurons forming complex functional chains or circuits
  27. Define perikaryon/ soma ?
    It is the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm .
  28. Is the Neuron nucleus Euchromatic and does it stain pale ?
  29. Where are the polyribosomes / nissl bodies located on the neuron ?
    Around the soma / perikaryon .
  30. Where is the Golgi complex located on the Neuron ?
    located only in the perikaryon  , makes transfers and secretory vesicles
  31. Where is the mitochondria located in the Neuron ?
    In axon terminals , scattered throughout the cytoplasm
  32. Are Intermediate filaments abundant in perikaryons ?What are they called ? What is the diameter ?


    -10 nm
  33. WHEN intermediate filaments are  IMPREGNATED with C¯ Ag , what do they form ?
  34. How big are the microtubules in the perikaryon ?
    24nm diamter
  35. What is lipofuscin ?
    It is the residue of undigested material by lysosomes
  36. What plain term for arborization?
  37. Does the dendritic cytoplasm have golgi complexes ?
  38. Are Nissly bodies and mitochondria present in dendrites ?
    Yes , but not in thin dendrites
  39. What are the spines used for that surround the dendrites ?
    For synaptic actions
  40. Does the axon hillock have RE.R. OR RIBOSOMES ?
  41. What is the plasma membrane of the axon called ? What is the plasma called ?

  42. What are collateral branches ?
    axon that returns back to the cell body
  43. Explain the following ?
  44. What are two excitatory neurotransmitters ?
    acetylcholine , Norepinephrine
  45. What are some inhibitory neurotransmitters ?
    • Glycine 
    • Serotonin
  46. Identify and name the structures ?
    Axon ending (synaptic end bulb)
    Synaptic vesicles
    Synaptic cleft
    Presynaptic membrane
    Postsynaptic membrane
  47. What are the five neurotransmitter classifications ?
    • Acetylcholine 
    • Biogenic Amines
    • Amino Acids 
    • Peptides
    • Novel Messengers
  48. What two categories  makes up biogenic amines (Emotional and Biological clock) ?
    • Indolamines 
    • Catecholamines
  49. What makes up Indolamines ?
    • Serotonin
    • Histamine
  50. What makes up Catecholamines ?
    • Dopamine
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  51. What makes up the Amino Acid neurotransmitters ?  Where can they only be found ?
    • GABA 
    • GLycine
    • Aspartate 
    • Glutamate 

  52. What makes up the peptide neurotransmitters ? Are they natural opiates ?
    Substance P , Beta endorphins , Dynorphin , enkephalins.

    Yes , opiates reduce pain
  53. What are the novel messengers and there function ?
    • Nitric Oxide (NO) -learning , memory
    • Carbon Monoxide - cGMP reg, brain
  54. Name the Neuroglial cells ?
    • Microglia
    • Oligodendrocytes 
    • Ependymal cells
    • Astrocytes
  55. What are astrocytes ? What are the pedicles ? Where can they be found ?
    -They are cells that connect the blood brain barrier in the brain , they also make scar tissue after CNS injury

    -Pedicles are the ends of the astrocytes

    -The periphery of the brain and the spinal cord , located under the pia mater
  56. What two types of astrocytes are there ?
    Fibrous-long slender smooth processes

    Photoplasmic-abundant granular cytoplasm.
  57. Where can Oligodendrocytes be found ? What is there function ?
    Perform myelination of the CNS , it can be found in the grey and white matter
  58. What is the function of microglia cells ?
  59. What are the function of ependymal cells ?
  60. Nerve fibers constitute what ?
    • Tracts if Brain
    • Spinal cord 
    • Peripheral nerves
  61. What do the descending tracts become ?
    • Direct (Pyramidal)
    • Indirect (Extrapyramidal)
  62. What make up the ascending tracts ?
    • Specific (Lemniscal)
    • Nonspecific (Anterolateral)
    • Spinocerebellar
  63. What does the Specific (Leminiscal) branch into ? What is there function ?
    Fasciculus Cuneatus :Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense (upper limb & sup. body trunk)

    Fasciculus Gracilis : Discriminative touch, pressure and body sense, but(lower limbs & inferiorboby turnk)
  64. What does the Spinocerebellar branch into ? What is there function ?
    Posterior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)

    Superior spinocerebellar :Subconscious proprio-ception (ipsilateral lower limb and trunk)
  65. Discuss the descending tracts ?
  66. What is the mesaxon ?
    is a pair of parallel plasma membranes of a Schwann cell, marking the point of edge-to-edge contact by the Schwann cell encircling the axon

  67. What are the Major dense lines of myelinated fibers ?
    fusion of cytoplasmic surfaces of schwann cell
  68. What are intraperiod lines of the myelinated fibers ?
    close contact , but not fusion , of the extracellular surfaces of adjacent layers of schwann cell membrane.
  69. Which area is rich in unmyelinated neurons ?
    CNS or PNS ?
  70. What is the chemical mediator of postangleonic of sympatheitc system is ?
  71. Chemical mediator of pre- & post-ganglionics of parasympathetic is ?
  72. What is an aggregation of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS ?
    Nerve ganglion
  73. What is dorsal root ganglia for ?
  74. The body of each ganglion cell is enveloped by a layer of what ?
    satellite cells
  75. What type of neurons are the dorsal root ganglia ?
    pseudopolar neurons
  76. What dorsal root ganglia are the only ones that are bipolar ?
    ones from the acoustic nerve
  77. Autonomic ganglia are bulbous dilations in autonomic nerves ? T or F
  78. Autonomic ganglia have multipolar neurons and Eccentric nuclei ? T of F
  79. What does white matter contain ?
    fibrous astrocytes, cicroglial cells
  80. What does the grey matter contain ?
    perikaryons, protoplasmic astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,microglial cells
  81. what do a majority of the cells look like in the cerebrum ?
    pyramidal , stellate , or spindle shape
  82. What are the three layers of the cerebellum ?
    • Outer molecular layer
    • Purkinje cell
    • Inner granule layer