Test Exam I.7 Brown Algae

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  1. A majority of them are __.

    Most are __ rather than __. None are __ or __. All are __. Some are small, but many (especially those with __) are larger

    • macroscopic
    • microscopic
    • unicellular
    • colonial
    • multicellular
    • holdfasts
  2. __: The Entire alga is a few centimeters in length. Only a few species. 

    __: Can be very large in size (ex: __ can be 100' in length.
    --- Often have a : __, __, and __
    • Branching filament
    • expanded thallus
    • macrocystis
    • blade (expanded and leaflike)
    • stipe (stalk) stemlike; may ave some phloem-like cells to transport food
    • holdfast-rootlike
  3. Many live in the __ at the endge of the ocean (__). Some are __.
    • intertidal zone
    • area btw low and high tide
    • free-foating in the open ocean
  4. What determines whether they are male or female is __. The __ is an unspecific plant body. __ are present in brown algae to allow __. 

    Where the blade meets the stipe is __, which adds more cells to the blade.
    • the X and Y chromosomes
    • thallus
    • air bubbles (whether anchored or not)
    • buoyancy

    meristematic area (where cells divide)
  5. How big they are depends on __. __ are reproductive structures. If any cells transport food, they are found at the __. A __ hides most of the green color (__: brown and green)
    • the species
    • receptacles
    • stipe
    • carotenoid
    • fucoxanthin
  6. Stored food is __- a carbohydrate, whose monosaccharide subunits are __. 

    The Life cycles may be __ or __. Only __ are gametes.
    • laminarin
    • beta glucose with beta 1,6 and beta 1,3 linkages

    diplobiontic (alternation of generations)- isomorphic or heteromorphic (meaning the gametophyte and sporophyte look different)

    • haplobiontic, idploid 
    • haploid
  7. Adaptations of brown algae in living in the intertidal zone
    • - holdfasts
    • - something to prevent dehydration
    • - hold moisture
    • - flexible structure, but tough as well (leathery)
    • -alot can continue to grow (if a piece is lost, it can be replaced)
  8. Adaptations of brown algae living in the open ocean

    How large are macrocysts?
    has to be buoyant (gas/air floats or bladders to trap air)

    ability to transport food

    some are anchored in the sediments

    100 ft long
  9. __ is the most important human relevance of brown algae
  10. __, a carbohydrate extracted from cell walls, is very important economically. Principal sources are __, __ and __ (most important)( ginat bladder kelp). The latter forms extensive beds off the coast of southern CA and is also grown commercially

    Total world production is __ with a value of > __

    Uses: used mainly as  __(5)__
    • algin
    • laminaria
    • aschphyllum
    • macrocystus
    • ~ 18,000 tons/ year
    • 100 million dollars
    • thickening agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, suspension agent, smoothing agent
  11. The __ produces an unpleasant __: ___. Disposal of this material has been a problem. It was accidentally discovered that this byproduct can snuff out fires and can absorb and contain liquid fuel spread by fire-fighting efforts. A CA company uses the byproduct to make __ bricks, which are used to build fire walls, and also flakes and a powder used to fight fires.
    • algin-extracting process
    • byproduct
    • a fishy-smelling slurry
    • fire-suppressant
  12. __, especially in some Asian countries; some species are cultured

    e.g. __
    -- Japan- culutred and called __ (sushi wrappers, in soups, with fish and meats, pickled condiments, etc)

    -- China- used for 1500 years as food and in medical remedies; cultured since WWII; industrial raw material for production of __ and __.
    direct food source



    iodine and mannitol (an alcohol)
  13. __ rich in vitamins and essential trace elements

    Source of __
    - __ concentrate iodine form seawater; can have an __ in their cells, 20000x higher than the concentration in seawater
    Used to treat __ in other countries. Other soures of iodine are cheaper in the US
    • kelps
    • iodine
    • kelps
    • iodine concentration
    • goiter
  14. Brown algae can also be used as __ and __, grund up and added to commercial feed for cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry.
    • fertilizer
    • livestock feed
  15. What is the humna relevance of brown algae?
    • algin
    • direct food source
    • fire-suppressant breaks made from algin extracting products
    • source of I
    • fertilizer
    • livestock feed
  16. If you cut the tip of the brown algae off, what happens? 
    it willr regenerate the blade
  17. What is an example of algin in each category?

    - food
    - paper
    - textiles
    - inductstrial uses
    - pharmaceuticals and cosmetics
    - brewing
    food: as a thickening agent (such as in gravies and icings), an emulsifier/ suspension agent (soft drinks), and stabilizer (eggnog)

    paper: provides better ink and holdout on paper surfaces 

    textiles: thickens print past and improves dye disspersal

    indsdusty: used in manufacture of acidic celeaners, films, seed coverings, etc.

    pharmaceuticals and cosmetics: thickening agent in weight control products, cough syrups/ smoothing agent in lotions, suspension agent (ex: liquid vitamins)

    brewing: creates creamer beer foam
  18. Brown algae store food in the form of __.

    Cell wall
    - __ keeps the cell wall from drying out. 

    - __ is a polysaccharide with __. One possible use may have __.
    • manatol
    • algin
    • focoidon
    • sulfur
    • antitumor activity
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Test Exam I.7 Brown Algae
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