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A majority of them are __.
Most are __ rather than __. None are __ or __. All are __. Some are small, but many (especially those with __) are larger
__: The Entire alga is a few centimeters in length. Only a few species.
__: Can be very large in size (ex: __ can be 100' in length.
--- Often have a : __, __, and __
- Branching filament
- expanded thallus
- blade (expanded and leaflike)
- stipe (stalk) stemlike; may ave some phloem-like cells to transport food
Many live in the __ at the endge of the ocean (__). Some are __.
- intertidal zone
- area btw low and high tide
- free-foating in the open ocean
What determines whether they are male or female is __. The __ is an unspecific plant body. __ are present in brown algae to allow __.
Where the blade meets the stipe is __, which adds more cells to the blade.
- the X and Y chromosomes
- air bubbles (whether anchored or not)
meristematic area (where cells divide)
How big they are depends on __. __ are reproductive structures. If any cells transport food, they are found at the __. A __ hides most of the green color (__: brown and green)
- the species
Stored food is __- a carbohydrate, whose monosaccharide subunits are __.
The Life cycles may be __ or __. Only __ are gametes.
- beta glucose with beta 1,6 and beta 1,3 linkages
diplobiontic (alternation of generations)- isomorphic or heteromorphic (meaning the gametophyte and sporophyte look different)
- haplobiontic, idploid
Adaptations of brown algae in living in the intertidal zone
- - holdfasts
- - something to prevent dehydration
- - hold moisture
- - flexible structure, but tough as well (leathery)
- -alot can continue to grow (if a piece is lost, it can be replaced)
Adaptations of brown algae living in the open ocean
How large are macrocysts?
has to be buoyant (gas/air floats or bladders to trap air)
ability to transport food
some are anchored in the sediments
100 ft long
__ is the most important human relevance of brown algae
__, a carbohydrate extracted from cell walls, is very important economically. Principal sources are __, __ and __ (most important)( ginat bladder kelp). The latter forms extensive beds off the coast of southern CA and is also grown commercially
Total world production is __ with a value of > __
Uses: used mainly as __(5)__
- ~ 18,000 tons/ year
- 100 million dollars
- thickening agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, suspension agent, smoothing agent
The __ produces an unpleasant __: ___. Disposal of this material has been a problem. It was accidentally discovered that this byproduct can snuff out fires and can absorb and contain liquid fuel spread by fire-fighting efforts. A CA company uses the byproduct to make __ bricks, which are used to build fire walls, and also flakes and a powder used to fight fires.
- algin-extracting process
- a fishy-smelling slurry
__, especially in some Asian countries; some species are cultured
-- Japan- culutred and called __ (sushi wrappers, in soups, with fish and meats, pickled condiments, etc)
-- China- used for 1500 years as food and in medical remedies; cultured since WWII; industrial raw material for production of __ and __.
direct food source
iodine and mannitol (an alcohol)
__ rich in vitamins and essential trace elements
Source of __
- __ concentrate iodine form seawater; can have an __ in their cells, 20000x higher than the concentration in seawater
Used to treat __ in other countries. Other soures of iodine are cheaper in the US
- iodine concentration
Brown algae can also be used as __ and __, grund up and added to commercial feed for cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry.
What is the humna relevance of brown algae?
- direct food source
- fire-suppressant breaks made from algin extracting products
- source of I
- livestock feed
If you cut the tip of the brown algae off, what happens?
it willr regenerate the blade
What is an example of algin in each category?
- inductstrial uses
- pharmaceuticals and cosmetics
food: as a thickening agent (such as in gravies and icings), an emulsifier/ suspension agent (soft drinks), and stabilizer (eggnog)
paper: provides better ink and holdout on paper surfaces
textiles: thickens print past and improves dye disspersal
indsdusty: used in manufacture of acidic celeaners, films, seed coverings, etc.
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics: thickening agent in weight control products, cough syrups/ smoothing agent in lotions, suspension agent (ex: liquid vitamins)
brewing: creates creamer beer foam
Brown algae store food in the form of __.
- __ keeps the cell wall from drying out.
- __ is a polysaccharide with __. One possible use may have __.
- antitumor activity