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What is the science of human development? 4
Seeks to understand how and why people change overtime. Multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic.
Based on observations, repeated experiences, verifiable experiments, facts; not theoretical
Scientific method 4
A way to answer questions using empirical research. Begin with curiosity (question), develop hypothesis, test hypothesis and gather data, draw conclusions (support our refute hypothesis), report the results.
The repetiton of a study, using different participants. Needed before scientific community accepts conclusions. Sids example.
General term for all the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from their parents at the moment of conception.
General term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived.
Critical period 6
Time when a particular type of developmental growth (body or behavior) must happen if it is going to happen.
Sensitive period 6
Time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen, although it may happen later.
Dynamic-systems theory 8
A view of human development as an ongoing, ever changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of their environment, including the daily and society.
Life-span perspective 10
An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood. Infancy, stages of childhood and adulthood. Linear, curvilinear, zigzag (up & down), stage like (1 development triggers several others), gains and losses often occur simultaneously. Multidirectional
Ecological-systems approach 11
The view that in the study of human development the person should be considered in all contexts and interactions that constitute life. (Later renamed bioecological theory) multicontextual
5 nested levels that effect each person urie bronfenbrenner 11
- Microsystems-elements of immediate surroundings (family, friends, school...)
- Exosystem-local institution such as school system, work place, religious organization
- Macrosystems-larger contexts like cultural values, economic policies, and political processes
- Meosystem-connects other systems (parents relationship with child's teacher)
- Chronosystem-time system, affects other systems
A group of defined by the shared age of its members. Each cohort was born at about the same time and moves through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Socio-economic status (ses) 12
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence. Social, middle or working class.
Meaning and information system shared by a group and transmitted across generations that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursues happiness and we'll bring and derive meaning from life. Citizens of a nation, residents of a region w/in a nation, members of an ethnic group, people living in one neighborhood, or even college students in a college class.
Ethnic group 14
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance. Social scientist think race is a misleading concept.
Social constructions 15
Have power given by people not biology. perceived racial divergences can lead to discrimination, which can cause physical and psychological illness. (Discrimination possible)
Mirror neurons 16
Cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed the action.
Biological, cognitive, and social. Different stages of development (infancy and stages of childhood and adulthood)
2 complementary aspects of development: human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does). Change its possible, development bulls on what has come before.
Scientific observation 19
A method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior in a systematic and objective manner (in a natural setting (home, school...), laboratory, or in searches of archival data). Can't prove what causes a person to do what they do. Table 1.4 statistical measures often used to analyze research results (effect size, significance
A research in which the researcher tries to determine the cause and effect relationship between 2 variables by manipulating one and then observing and recording the ensuing changes in the other variable. (Independent and dependent variable)
Independent and dependent variable 20
Independent in an experiment, variable that is introduced see what effect it has on the dependent variable. (Also called experimental variable)
Dependent In an experiment, variable that may as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds.
A research in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaire, or some other means. Quick and large number but valid data is difficult (people change minds, lie. ..)
Cross-sectional systems 21
A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics. Quickest and least expensive, most convenient.
Longitudinal research 22
A research design in which the same individuals are filed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed. Problems, relevance of those born in 1900 experiences to those born in 2000, takes time, how apply to current problems?
Cross-sequential research 25
A hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (cross-sectional) and then follow those groups over the years (longitudinal). Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research)
Cautions from science 25
Misinterpreting correlation, relying exclusively on numbers, and ignoring ethics.
- A number between +1.0 and -1.0 that indicates the degree of relationship between 2 variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that 1 variable will or will not occur when the other variable does or does not. Indicated only that 2 variables are related, not that 1 variable causes the other to occur.
- Positive, if both variables tend to increase our decrease together. Height and age
- Negative, if one variable trends to increase while the other decreases. Age and his if sleep
- Zero, if no connection is evident. Age and number of toes
Quantitative research 27
Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks our scales.
Qualitative research 27
Research that considers qualities instead of quantities. Descriptions of particular conditions and participants expressed ideas are often pay off qualitative studies. Vulnerable to personal bias and hard to replicate.
Code of ethics 27
A set of moral principles that members of a profession our group are expected to follow. Report findings honestly and base generalizations on more than one study.
Institutional review board (irb) 27
A group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research files established guidelines and remains ethical.
Informed consent 27
Research participation is voluntary, confidential, and games. Understanding research procedures and any risks involved.
Stereotyping and prejudice against individuals or groups because of their age.
Age of gerontophilia (love of aging) pp
Early 1700's to about 1850. Puritans people that live tobe old are blessed, dress to look older, older people oown land
Age of getontophobia (fear of aging) pp
1850 to present, industrial revolution and medical breakthroughs, young people valued as factory workers, but elderly can live with chronic illness.
child labor laws pp
In the beginning, minimum age requirements were partly put in place to protect children and partly to protect adult jobs
High schools pp
Developed and began requiring attendance up until a certain age in the early 1900s. This was to train workers and to keep adolescents occupied.
Juvenile court pp
Until the early 1900s most children and adolescent criminals were placed in jail or prison with adults, resulting in children being harmed and learning bad habits.
Soft vs hard baby carriers pp
Significantly more of the babies in the soft baby carrier became securely attached to their moms
3 grand theories pp
- Psychoanalytic-focuses on how the unconscious and early experiences affect behavior
- Behaviorism-focuses on how the environment affects behavior
- Cognitive-focuses on how learning, memory, and through-processes affect behavior
7 specific theories important to development psychology pp
- Sigmund Freud-unconscious and psychosexual stages
- Erik Erikson-8 stages of psychosocial development
- John bowlby and mary ainsworth-attachment theory-early attachment affects later relationships
- Albert bandura-social learning-the importance of role models
- Jean piaget-cognitive development-children have a different view of the world than adults do
- Lev vygotsky-cognitive mediation-mentors are important to cognitive development
- Urie bronfenbrenner-ecological systems