Pharm Quiz 1

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bamerb07
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260881
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Pharm Quiz 1
Updated:
2014-02-08 13:15:15
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Pharm Quiz
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Quiz is on 2/11 Lilley: 1-5, Ch 2 16-28, 33-34 Mulholland Ch 3
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  1. What does PURR stand for?
    • Prepare
    • Understand
    • Rehearse
    • Review
  2. Define pharmodynamics
    • the study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs
    • "drugs in action"
  3. What does the term pharmaco mean?
    "drug" or "medicine"
  4. What does the term dynamics mean?
    motion and/or action
  5. Define additive effects
    Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. For example 1+1=2 (compare with synergistic effects)
  6. Define adverse drug reaction
    Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose)
  7. Define adverse effects
    A general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs
  8. Define agonist
    A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
  9. Define allergic reaction
    An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event
  10. Define antagonist
    A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body. Antagonists are also called inhibitors
  11. Define antagonistic effects
    Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs in less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1+1 equals less than 2); it is usually caused by an antagonizing (blocking or reducing) effect of one drug on another
  12. define bioavailability
    a measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%)
  13. define biotransformation
    One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug. Biotransformation occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active. Also known as metabolism
  14. Define blood brain barrier
    The barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (e.g., bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the central nervous system. It still allows for the passage of essential substances such as oxygen.
  15. Define chemical name
    The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug.
  16. Define contraindication
    Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable.
  17. Cytochrome P-450
    The general name for a large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism and drug interactions.
  18. Define dependence
    A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug.
  19. Define dissolution
    The process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation.
  20. Define drug
    Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism.
  21. Define drug actions
    The processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (e.g., the action of a drug on a receptor protein); also called mechanism of action.
  22. Define drug classification
    A method of grouping drugs; may be based on structure or therapeutic use.
  23. Define drug effects
    The physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. They can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the body is affected as a whole by the drug. The terms onset, peak, and duration are used to describe drug effects (most often referring to therapeutic effects)
  24. Define drug-induced teratogenesis
    The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs.
  25. Define drug interaction
    Alteration in the pharmacologic or pharmacokinetic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs; it is usually related to effects on the enzymes required for metabolism of the involved drugs.
  26. Define duration of action
    The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response.
  27. Define enzymes
    Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the body's physiologic processes as well as those related to drug
  28. Define first-pass effect
    The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream.
  29. Define generic name
    The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. Also called the nonproprietary name. The generic name is much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark.
  30. Define glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
    A hereditary condition in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to certain drugs.
  31. Define half-life
    In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50% (also called elimination half-life).
  32. Define idiosyncratic reaction
    An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient.
  33. Define incompatibility
    The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs.
  34. Define intraarterial
    within an artery
  35. Define intraarticular
    Within a joint
  36. Define intrathecal
    Within a sheath (e.g., the theca of the spinal cord, as in an intrathecal injection into the subarachnoid space).
  37. Define medication error
    Any preventable adverse drug event (see above) involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; it may or may not cause patient harm.
  38. Define medication use process
    The prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications, and the monitoring of their effects.
  39. Define metabolite
    A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug (see later). Active metabolites are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive (see prodrug). Inactive metabolites lack pharmacologic activity and are simply drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body (e.g., via the urinary, gastrointestinal, or respiratory tract).
  40. define onset of action
    The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing
  41. define parent drug
    The chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body's biochemical reactions into its active or inactive metabolites (see metabolite). A parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself is called a prodrug. A prodrug is then metabolized to pharmacologically active metabolites.
  42. Define peak effect
    The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body
  43. Define peak level
    The maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
  44. Define pharmaceutics
    The science of preparing and dispensing drugs including dosage form design
  45. Define pharmacodynamics
    The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors.
  46. Define pharmacoeconomics
    The study of economic factors impacting the cost of drug therapy
  47. Define pharmacogenomics
    The study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberrations that result in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes (also called pharmacogenomics
  48. Define pharmacognosy
    The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources
  49. Define pharmacokinetics
    The study of what happens to a drug from the time it is put into the body until the parent drug and all metabolites have left the body. Pharmacokinetics represent the drug absorption into, distribution and metabolism within, and excretion from the body.
  50. Define pharmacology
    The broadest term for the study or science of drugs
  51. Define pharmacotherapeutics
    The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs
  52. Define prodrug
    An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body.
  53. Define receptor
    A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (e.g., drug molecules), and one or more corresponding cellular effects (drug actions) occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction.
  54. Define steady state
    The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.
  55. Define substrates
    Substances (e.g., drugs or natural biochemicals in the body) on which an enzyme acts.
  56. Define synergistic effects
    Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. For example, 1 + 1 is greater than 2 (compare with additive effects).
  57. Define therapeutic drug monitoring
    The process of measuring drug levels to identify a patient's drug exposure and to allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity.
  58. Define therapeutic effect
    The desired or intended effect of a particular medication
  59. Define therapeutic index
    The ration between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
  60. Define tolerance
    Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
  61. Define toxic
    the quality of being poisonous (i.e. injurious to health or dangerous to life)
  62. Define toxicity
    The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
  63. Define toxicology
    The study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and applicable treatments
  64. Define trade name
    The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer; also called the proprietary name
  65. define trough level
    the lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for a therapeutic drug monitoring

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