Anthropology Exam 1 Review

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Anthropology Exam 1 Review
2014-10-10 14:53:06
anthropology NMC

Anthropology review for Exam 1 Northwestern Michigan College
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  1. One of the major problems facing anthropologists doing research is:
    forming an objective hypothesis that is not culture-bound about phenomena in another culture.
  2. The subject matter of cultural anthropology is closely related to that of the:
    social sciences
  3. The humanistic side of anthropology is most evident in the discipline's concern with:
    a culture's values and achievements in the arts and literature.
  4. A major concern of physical anthropology is:
    humans as biological organisms
  5. The primary focus of interest of cultural anthropology is:
    patterns of human behaviour in societies
  6. Ethnography is the:
    systematic description of a culture based on firsthand observation
  7. A theory is a:
    system of validated hypotheses
  8. A hypothesis is a:
    tentative explanation of the relationship between certain phenomena
  9. According to the textbook, the most important contribution anthropology can make to present-day North American society is to:
    promote clearer understanding of other peoples and cultures
  10. A key part of Edward Burnett Tylor's classic definition of culture is that culture is:
    a complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits.
  11. A key part of a recent definition of culture is that culture is:
    a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society, produces behavior that members consider to be proper and acceptable.
  12. A culture is "shared" in the sense that:
    members of the group generally hold the same ideals, values and standards.
  13. "A group of interdependent people who share a common culture" is Haviland's definition of:
  14. In the process called "enculturation":
    one learns the culturally appropriate ways of satisfying one's needs.
  15. Language is the most important:
    symbolic aspect of a culture.
  16. Anthropologists have found that the parts of a culture tend to function as an interrelated whole.  This phenomenon is called:
  17. The human species is unique among animals in its adaptations because humans:
    have usually made cultural adaptations.
  18. Cultural adaptation, as defined in the textbook, includes:
    • The process by which organisms make a beneficial adjustment to an available environment.
    • The results achieved through changes in biological or physical structure over many generations.
    • Possession of characteristics that enable organisms to overcome hazards and secure needed resources.
  19. In general, the most important incentive for members of the society who adhere to its cultural standards is:
    social approval and acceptance.
  20. The belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones is called:
  21. Walter Goldschmidt's approach to evaluating cultures is concerned mainly with how the culture:
    satisfies physical and psychological needs.
  22. Archaeology is best defined as the study of:
    material remains
  23. An ethical standard for ethnologists who are in contact with an isolated society is that ethnologists should:
    be aware that their contact with an isolated society could cause harm to that culture.
  24. Which social scientists are the ones most likely to make cross-cultural comparisons?
  25. Ethnocentrism is best defined as the:
    belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones.
  26. he scientific approach is best described as the:
    development of testable explanations for observed phenomena.
  27. The most important reason for ethnographic fieldwork is that it:
    provides an opportunity to discover previously unknown patterns in culture.
  28. The most desired result of participant observation by the ethnographer is:
    an explanation of how the society's practices and traditions fit into a meaningful whole.
  29. Science defines the term "theory" as:
    an explanation of natural phenomena supported by reliable data.
  30. In 1501 nearly all European accounts describe the east coast of North America as:
    densely populated
  31. At contact Native Americans describe Europeans as:
    physically weak,  sexually untrustworthy, and atrociously ugly
  32. The pilgrims disliked native dress because:
    the Indians were fashion victims
  33. Starting in 1616 viral hepatitis is thought to have killed as many as _­__% of the Native American population in New England.
  34. It is thought that the earliest large-scale human societies arose where there is a wide range of altitudes and topographies within a short distance. An example of this is found in:
  35. Cook and Borah state that in 1491 Central Mexico was:
    the most densely populated area on Earth
  36. Traditionally Native Americans are thought to have colonized the America's by crossing the Bering straights land bridge and walking down an ice corridor approximately ___ years ago:
    13,500 years
  37. The European who conquered the Aztec was:
  38. Cook and Borah estimate that after the European conquest only __% of the population of central Mexico survived.
  39. One of the new theories about how the Americas were first populated, as discussed in "the First Americans" video, was:
    people followed a trail of kelp from Japan
  40. One of the important points regarding early technologies discussed in "the First Americans" video, was:
     that it builds on prior models
  41. One of the mysterious findings by physical anthropologists in "the First Americans" video was:
    that there were no transitions in the development of the skulls of early Americans
  42. Many of the older skeleton found in North America show signs of:
    death by warfare
  43. "The First Americans" video concludes that the first settlers of this hemisphere:
    were capable pioneers
  44. From the standpoint of linguistics, a symbol is:
    a sound or a gesture that has an agreed-on meaning.
  45. The rules a language follows in phrase and sentence construction constitute the language's:
  46. The division of linguistics that is most concerned with the relationships of older languages to modern ones is:
    historical linguistics
  47. The division of linguistics that is most concerned with studying the complete system of a single language at one point in time is:
    descriptive linguistics
  48. A phoneme is:
     the smallest class of sounds that may made a difference in meaning.
  49. In linguistics, syntax refers to the:
    rules governing the making of phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  50. An example of a kinesic message is:
    a hand or arm gesture.
  51. Studies of core vocabulary are important in glottochronology because:
    the rate at which common words change is helpful in determining the date that one language branched off from another.
  52. In the hypothesis developed by Benjamin Lee Whorf, the phrase "grooves of expression" means that:
    a language is a shaping force that predisposes people to see the world in a certain way and that guides their thinking and behavior.
  53. The field of study most concerned with the dialects of a particular language is:
  54. In studying the languages of various isolated societies, anthropologists have found:
    all languages are able to convey complex and subtle messages.
  55. The definition of personality in the textbook includes:
    • behavior
    • thoughts
    • feelings
  56. A frequent criticism of "national character" studies is that they:
    do not sufficiently recognize countless individuals who vary from the generalization.
  57. The core value that North Americans of European descent hold in highest esteem is:
  58. A behavior thought to be associated with great spiritual powers in some American Plains Indian tribes was:
    a man's assuming the dress of a woman.
  59. Anthropological studies seem to indicate that culture influences the:
    • form a mental illness will take
    • diagnosis of a mental condition
    • treatment of a mental condition
  60. In Western industrialized societies, child rearing:
    includes professionals as a part of the process.
  61. The behavioral environment is:
    organized and perceived through the culture.
  62. Anthropologists study child-rearing techniques because those practices:
    have a significant effect on the personality of adults.
  63. Margaret Mead's studies in Samoa:
    provided evidence that adolescence is not always accompanied by some degree of stress and conflict.
  64. The type of society in which parents typically spend the least amount of time with their children is probably:
    an industrial society.
  65. Dependence training of children is associated with:
    encouraging compliance in the performance of assigned tasks.
  66. One difficulty in determining modal personality is that:
    the measurement techniques for this research are difficult to carry out in the field.