Psych 2235

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rbutter
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260889
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Psych 2235
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2014-02-08 21:44:58
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Chapter three and power points
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  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) 62
    The chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes, which are the chemical instructionsfor cells to manufacture various proteins.
  2. Chromosome 62
    One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes.
  3. Gene 62
    A small section of a chromosome; the basic unit for the transmission of heredity. A gene consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins. Work of the cell is done by proteins.
  4. Amino acid bases 62
    Protein composed of a sequence of chemicals, amino acids. Adenine, thiamine, cytosine, and guanine. A-t c-g 20 types of amino acids. Bar pairs arranged in triplets, transposition, deletions and repetitions cause alternative versions.
  5. Allele 62
    A variation that makes a gene dissent in some way from other genes fit the same characteristics. Many genes never vary; others have several possible alleles.
  6. Genome 62
    The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species. 99.9% identical fit any two people. 20,000 genes on 46 chromosomes, using 3 million base pairs of 4 chemicals to instruct production of 20 amino acids to create proteins.
  7. Zygote 63
    The single cell formed from the union of two gametes (sperm and ovum)
  8. Gamete 63
    A reproductive cell; sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote. Contains 23 chromosomes, half of the 46 of the zygote. 2^23 different gametes, more than 8 million versions of their own 46 chromosomes. X is about 3 times larger than Y.
  9. Genotype 64
    An organisms entire genetic inheritance, our genetic potential
  10. Autosome 64
    22 of 23 pairs of chromosomes are closely matched. Each of 44 chromosomes called autosome. Independent (auto-self) of the sec chromosomes (23 rd pair)
  11. Homozygous 64
    Referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly sane in every letter of their code. Most gene pairs are homozygous.
  12. Heterozygous 65
    Referring to two genes of one pair that differ in some way. Typically one allele has only a few base pairs that differ from the other member of the pair.
  13. 23rd pair 65
    The chromosome pair that in humans determined sex. The other 22 pairs are Autosome; inherited equally by males and females.
  14. XX 6t
    A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of 2 X-shaped chromosomes, one each from each parent, become female
  15. XY 65
    A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of an X-shaped chromosome from mom and a a Y-shaped chromosome from dad, becoming male.
  16. Both ratio and SRY 65
    X chromosome is bigger and has more genes, but the Y chromosome has a crucial gene, SRY that directs fetus to make make organs and hormones. Natural sex ratio 50:50. Famine, males more likely to be spontaneously aborted or miscarried. Actual ratio more makes conceived and born. 120m:100f conceived and 106m:100f born. Y down is smaller and lighter.
  17. New cells after conception 66
    Within hours after conception the zygote behind duplication and division. About 8 cell stage a third process, differentiation is added. Cells start to specialize, taking different forms and reproducing at various rates, depending on their location.
  18. Stem cells 67
    Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form.
  19. Monozygotic (mz) twins 68
    Twins who originate from one zygote that split apart very early in development. Identical twins. Can be multiple births, triplets, quadruplets. Same genotype
  20. Dizygotic (dz) twins 68
    Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time. Fraternal twins. 2/3 of natural twin births. Share about half of genes.
  21. Assisted reproductive technology (art) 69
    A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
  22. In vitro fertilization (ivf) 69
    Fertilization that takes place outside a women's body, as a glass laboratory dish, the procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman's ovary. If a zygote is produced, it is inserted into the women's uterus, where it may implant and develop into a baby. Also possible artificial insemination-intrauterine insemination. Both defects increase with ivf
  23. Phenotype 71
    The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits. Nothing is totally genetic and nothing is untouched by genes. Genes produce proteins, not mature traits. Phenotype connected with genotype.
  24. Polygenic 71
    Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes. Phenotype depends on many genes and the environment.
  25. Multifactorial 71
    Referring to a trait is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental expression; enhancing, halting, shaking, or altering the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly fromthe genotype.
  26. Epigenetic 71
    Referring to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression; enhancing, halting, shaking, or altering the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype. Injury, temperature extremes, drug abuse, nourishment, play, love.....
  27. Methylation 71
    Biochemical elements silence certain genes, changes the expression of genes, as time goes on causing things like cancer, schizophrenia, and autism.
  28. Human genome project 72
    An international effort to mask the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing.
  29. Additive 72
    Alleles whose effects add up to influence the phenotype.
  30. Dominant-recessive pattern 73
    The interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence ofone allele more than that of the other allele.
  31. Carrier 73
    A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not exposed in the phenotype. Such an unexpressed gene occurs in half of the carrier's gametes and thus is passed on to half of the carrier's children, who will most likely be carriers too. Generally only when such a gene is inherited from both parents does the characteristic appear in the phenotype.
  32. X-linked 73
    Referring to a gene carried on the X chromosome. If a male inherits an X-linked recessive trait from his mom, he exposes that trait because the Y from his father had no counteracting gene. Females are more likely to be carriers is X-linked traits but are less likely to express them. Examples: red-green colorblindness, male Pattern baldness, hemophilia, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
  33. Developmentalists accept 4 generalities 75
    • Genes affect every aspect of behavior
    • Most environmental influences on children raised in same home are not shared.
    • A person's genes elicit responses and shape development
    • People choose friend and environments that accept and encourage their genetic predispositions (niche-picking)
  34. Heritability 76
    A statistic that indicates what percentage of the  in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes.
  35. Down syndrome 79
    Also called trisomy-21. A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st site. People with down syndrome typically have distinctive characteristics, including unusual facial features, heart abnormalities, and language difficulties.
  36. Fragile X syndrome 82
    A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause I'd a single gene that has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet. Most common form of inherited mental retardation.
  37. Genetic counseling 82
    Consultation and testing done by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive.
  38. Phenylketonuria (pku) 83
    A genetic disorder in which a child's body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine. Unless the infant immediately begins a special diet, the resulting buildup of phenylalanine in body fluids caussbrain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms.
  39. Punnett square pp
    Determines the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype. It is made by comparing ask possible combinations of alleles (single genes) from mom with those of dad. It gives probabilities based on infinite number of children. Each square represents a 25% chance of inheriting a certain genotype.

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