Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6)Part 1

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clsweat
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260899
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Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6)Part 1
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2014-02-12 13:41:36
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Hospital Corpsman
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Hospital Corpsman NAVEDTRA 14295B
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  1. What is the study of body structures and the relation of one part to another?
    Anatomy
  2. What is the study of how the body works and how the various parts function individually and in relation to each other?
    Physiology
  3. What divides the body into right and left halves on its vertical axis?
    Sagittal plane
  4. What are drawn perpendicular to the sagittal lines and divide the body into anterior (front) and posterior (rear) sections?
    Frontal Planes
  5. This line passes through the coronal suture of the cranium; frontal planes are also called what?
    coronal planes
  6. What is drawn at right angles to both sagittal and frontal planes, divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) sections?
    Horizontal or Transverse plane
  7. What is Anterior or Ventral?
    Toward the front
  8. What is Posterior or Dorsal?
    Toward the Back
  9. What is Medial?
    Near or toward the mid-sagittal plane of the body
  10. What is Lateral?
    Away from the mid-sagittal plane of the body
  11. What is Proximal?
    Nearest to the point of origin or towards the trunk
  12. What is distal?
    Away from the point of origin or away from the trunk
  13. What is Superior?
    Toward the top of the body or above
  14. What is Caudal?
    Toward the lower end of the body
  15. What is inferior?
    Toward the bottom of the body or below
  16. What is Supine?
    Lying position of the body, face up
  17. What is prone?
    Lying position of the body, face down
  18. What is Lateral recumbent?
    Lying position of the body, on either side
  19. What is peripheral?
    The outward part or surface of a structure
  20. What involves the physical and chemical breakdown of food into its simplest forms?
    Digestion
  21. What is the process of absorption, storage, and use of these foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair?
    Metabolism
  22. What is the body's self-regulated control of its internal environment?
    Homeostasis
  23. What is the smallest and most numerous structural unit that possesses and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
    cell
  24. The simplest living organism consists of (What)?
    A single cell
  25. Every human cell contains (How many) chromosomes?
    46
  26. The lining tissue of the body is called (What)? It forms the outer covering of the body known as the free surface of the skin.
    Epithelial Tissue
  27. What are the three categories of epithelial tissue?
    • 1. Columnar
    • 2. Squamous
    • 3. Cuboidal
  28. What epithelial cells are elongated, longer than they are wide, single layer of cells, and located in the digestive system / passages of the respiratory system?
    Columnar Epithelial Tissue
  29. What is composed of thin plate-like or scale-like cells forming a mosaic pattern; Found in the tympanic membrane (eardrum) as a single layer of cells, or in the free skin surface in multiple layers.
    (Hint: Main Protective tissue of the body)
    Squamous Epithelial Tissue
  30. What is cubical in shape, and are found in more highly specialized organs of the body (ovary and kidney)?
    (Hint: secretion and absorption of fluids)
    Cuboidal epithelial tissue
  31. What tissue is supporting tissue and highly vascular?
    Connective Tissue
  32. What are the three predominant types of connective tissue?
    • 1. Areolar
    • 2. Adipose
    • 3. Osseous
  33. What tissue consist of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all direction, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength; found between muscles and as an outside covering for blood vessels and nerves.
    ( Hint: Connects the blood vessels and bind parts of the body together)
    Areolar Connective Tissue
  34. What acts as a reservoir for energy-producing foods; helps to reduce body heat loss and serves as support for various organs and fragile structures, such as the kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves.
    (Hint: Fatty tissue and Star-shaped)
    Adipose Connective Tissue
  35. What is known as "Bone tissue"; dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones?
    Osseous Connective Tissue
  36. What muscle is under the control of the individual's will?
    (Striated or striped)
    Skeletal (voluntary) Muscle
  37. What muscle is not under the control of the individual's will?
    (Non-Striated)
    Smooth Muscle Tissue
  38. What muscle are striated and are joined end to end, resulting in a complex network of interlocking cells?
    Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  39. What is the most complex tissue and requires more oxygen and nutrients than any other body tissue?
    Nerve Tissue
  40. What protects the underlying structures from injury, plays an important part in regulating body temperature and prevents excessive water loss?
    Skin
  41. What is the outer layer of the skin?
    Epidermis
  42. What lies below the epidermis and gradually blends into the deeper tissues?
    (Hint: True skin)
    Dermis
  43. There are how many bones in the body?
    206
  44. What is the study of the structure of bone?
    Osteology
  45. Bone consists of a hard outer shell called what?
    Compact bone
  46. What is the inner spongy, porous portion of the bone called?
    Cancellous tissue
  47. The center of the bone is called what? And what does it contain?
    Medullary canal; Marrow

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