Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6)Part 1
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What is the study of body structures and the relation of one part to another?
What is the study of how the body works and how the various parts function individually and in relation to each other?
What divides the body into right and left halves on its vertical axis?
What are drawn perpendicular to the sagittal lines and divide the body into anterior (front) and posterior (rear) sections?
This line passes through the coronal suture of the cranium; frontal planes are also called what?
What is drawn at right angles to both sagittal and frontal planes, divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) sections?
Horizontal or Transverse plane
What is Anterior or Ventral?
Toward the front
What is Posterior or Dorsal?
Toward the Back
What is Medial?
Near or toward the mid-sagittal plane of the body
What is Lateral?
Away from the mid-sagittal plane of the body
What is Proximal?
Nearest to the point of origin or towards the trunk
What is distal?
Away from the point of origin or away from the trunk
What is Superior?
Toward the top of the body or above
What is Caudal?
Toward the lower end of the body
What is inferior?
Toward the bottom of the body or below
What is Supine?
Lying position of the body, face up
What is prone?
Lying position of the body, face down
What is Lateral recumbent?
Lying position of the body, on either side
What is peripheral?
The outward part or surface of a structure
What involves the physical and chemical breakdown of food into its simplest forms?
What is the process of absorption, storage, and use of these foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair?
What is the body's self-regulated control of its internal environment?
What is the smallest and most numerous structural unit that possesses and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
The simplest living organism consists of (What)?
A single cell
Every human cell contains (How many) chromosomes?
The lining tissue of the body is called (What)? It forms the outer covering of the body known as the free surface of the skin.
What are the three categories of epithelial tissue?
- 1. Columnar
- 2. Squamous
- 3. Cuboidal
What epithelial cells are elongated, longer than they are wide, single layer of cells, and located in the digestive system / passages of the respiratory system?
Columnar Epithelial Tissue
What is composed of thin plate-like or scale-like cells forming a mosaic pattern; Found in the tympanic membrane (eardrum) as a single layer of cells, or in the free skin surface in multiple layers.
(Hint: Main Protective tissue of the body)
Squamous Epithelial Tissue
What is cubical in shape, and are found in more highly specialized organs of the body (ovary and kidney)?
(Hint: secretion and absorption of fluids)
Cuboidal epithelial tissue
What tissue is supporting tissue and highly vascular?
What are the three predominant types of connective tissue?
- 1. Areolar
- 2. Adipose
- 3. Osseous
What tissue consist of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all direction, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength; found between muscles and as an outside covering for blood vessels and nerves.
( Hint: Connects the blood vessels and bind parts of the body together)
Areolar Connective Tissue
What acts as a reservoir for energy-producing foods; helps to reduce body heat loss and serves as support for various organs and fragile structures, such as the kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves.
(Hint: Fatty tissue and Star-shaped)
Adipose Connective Tissue
What is known as "Bone tissue"; dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones?
Osseous Connective Tissue
What muscle is under the control of the individual's will?
(Striated or striped)
Skeletal (voluntary) Muscle
What muscle is not under the control of the individual's will?
Smooth Muscle Tissue
What muscle are striated and are joined end to end, resulting in a complex network of interlocking cells?
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
What is the most complex tissue and requires more oxygen and nutrients than any other body tissue?
What protects the underlying structures from injury, plays an important part in regulating body temperature and prevents excessive water loss?
What is the outer layer of the skin?
What lies below the epidermis and gradually blends into the deeper tissues?
(Hint: True skin)
There are how many bones in the body?
What is the study of the structure of bone?
Bone consists of a hard outer shell called what?
What is the inner spongy, porous portion of the bone called?
The center of the bone is called what? And what does it contain?
Medullary canal; Marrow
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