Biology Exam 1 Review
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What are the 4 attributes of Natural Selection?
- genetic variation
- over-production of offspring
- struggle for existence
- differential survival and reproduction
Genetic Variation ?
- There must be genetic variation within the population for NS to operate, for example, hummingbirds have different lengths of their
Over-Production of Offspring?
- Too many off-spring are produced for the
- environment to support
Struggle for Existence?
the environment can only support so many individuals, environment can change – flowers can become deeper, so longer billed hummingbirds will be better able to feed from them than shorter billed birds
Differential Survival and Reproduction?
- only some in the population will survive, and
- therefore reproduce, and therefore pass on their traits……..if longer billed birds can feed better, they will survive better than short billed birds, and therefore reproduce, the genes for long bills will be passed on and eventually,the population as a whole will evolve to one having longer bills than was seen before
Defining feature of a prokaryote ?
What is the name of ROUND prokaryotes?
Most common mode of nutrition for Prokaryotes?
Prokaryotes reproduce by __?
Part of Prokaryote cell used for movement?
Shape of Spirilla?
Shape of Bacilli?
Cell Wall- Protection from outside harm and maintain shape
Ribosomes- The site of protein synthesis
Pili- used for sexual reproduction
Cytoplasm- jelly region where many metabolic reactions occur
Flagellum- used for movement
Plasma Membrane- controls material coming in and out of the cell
Plasmid- small circle of DNA
Nucleoid Region- where DNA is located
What are the 4 types of prokaryotic cells in terms of nutrition ?
- Photo autotroph- use light
- chemo autotroph- use chemicals
- photoheterotroph- use light & eats other things
- chemoheterotrophs- chemical & eats other things *most baterica*
Name three defining characteristics of a virus.
- Nucleic acid core & protein coat
- Non cellular
- can not replicate on their own
Name an example of a DNA virus and a RNA virus.
- DNA- Para viruses disease is Roseola
- RNA- HIV
Name the 5 viral multiplication steps.
- 1. attachment
- 2. penetration
- 3. synthesis (generate new genome and proteins)
- 4. assembly
- 5. release
What are the differences between the lytic and the lysogenic pathways?
- Lytic pathways burst
- Lysogenic pathways- intergrate the viral DNA into the host chromosomes & latent - waits until triggered then will be shown (cold sores)
What is Fission?
the single DNA molecule replicates and the original cell is divided into two identical cells.
Bacteria Kingdom holding Anabaena?
Bacteria Kingdom holding Thermus aquaticus?
Bacteria Kingdom holding E.Coli?
Bacteria Kingdom holding Lactobacillus?
Bacteria Kingdom holding Borrelia burgdorferi?
Archaebacteria Kingdom called methane makers?
Archaebacteria Kingdom that live in Great Salt Lake?
Archaebacteria Kingdom that live in hot springs?
Methanococcus is a?
HIV is a ______virus?
2 differences in lysogenic vs lytic pathway
integration of DNA and latent period
Three characteristics of viruses?
- non cellular,
- genetic material DNA or RNA,
- cannot reproduce on their own
Herpes is a _______virus?
- Heat lovers
- live in hot environments
- ex : aquafix
- Primary producers in the ocean
- nitrogen fixation
- ex: Anabaena
- Gains energy by stripping electrons
- ex: Salmonella
- Stain Purple
- ex Strep
- Gram negative
- Spiral shaped
- ex Syphillis & Lyme disease
- Methane producers
- found in marshes, cow guts, swamps
- ex- Methanococus
- heat loving
- found in hot springs & volcanic vents
- ex- Thermaplasma
- Salt loving
- found in very salty water like the dead sea & great salt lake
- ex- Halobacterium
Name the 6 Kingdoms
Characteristics of a Living organism
1.Are composed of cells
2.Reproduce using DNA
3.Grow and develop
4.Actively take in energy from their environment
5.Sense their environment and respond to it
6.Maintain constant internal conditions
7.Can evolve as groups
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