Biology Exam 1 Review

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Biology Exam 1 Review
2014-02-08 17:13:46
Exam 1 Review Div of Plants & Animals
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  1. What are the 4 attributes of Natural Selection?
    • genetic variation
    • over-production of offspring
    • struggle for existence
    • differential survival and reproduction
  2. Genetic Variation ?
    • There must be genetic variation within the population for NS to operate, for example, hummingbirds have different lengths of their
    • bills
  3. Over-Production of Offspring?
    • Too many off-spring are produced for the
    • environment to support
  4. Struggle for Existence?
    the environment can only support so many individuals, environment can change – flowers can become deeper, so longer billed hummingbirds will be better able to feed from them than shorter billed birds
  5. Differential Survival and Reproduction?
    • only some in the population will survive, and
    • therefore reproduce, and therefore pass on their traits……..if longer billed birds can feed better, they will survive better than short billed birds, and therefore reproduce, the genes for long bills will be passed on and eventually,the population as a whole will evolve to one having longer bills than was seen before
  6. Defining feature of a prokaryote ?
    no nucleus
  7. What is the name of ROUND prokaryotes?
  8. Most common mode of nutrition for Prokaryotes?
    Chemo- Heterotrophs
  9. Prokaryotes reproduce by __?
  10. Part of Prokaryote cell used for movement?
  11. Shape of Cocci?
  12. Shape of Spirilla?
    Spiral shapped
  13. Shape of Bacilli?
    Rod shapped
  14. Cell Wall- Protection from outside harm and maintain shape

    Ribosomes- The site of protein synthesis 

    Pili- used for sexual reproduction

    Cytoplasm- jelly region where many metabolic reactions occur

    Flagellum- used for movement

    Plasma Membrane- controls material coming in and out of the cell 

    Plasmid- small circle of DNA

    Nucleoid Region-  where DNA is located
  15. What are the 4 types of prokaryotic cells in terms of nutrition ?
    • Photo autotroph- use light
    • chemo autotroph- use chemicals
    • photoheterotroph- use light & eats other things
    • chemoheterotrophs- chemical & eats other things *most baterica*
  16. Name three defining characteristics of a virus.
    • Nucleic acid core & protein coat
    • Non cellular
    • can not replicate on their own
  17. Name an example of a DNA virus and a RNA virus.
    • DNA- Para viruses disease is Roseola
    • RNA- HIV
  18. Name the 5 viral multiplication steps.
    • 1. attachment
    • 2. penetration
    • 3. synthesis (generate new genome and proteins)
    • 4. assembly
    • 5. release
  19. What are the differences between the lytic and the lysogenic pathways?
    • Lytic pathways burst
    • Lysogenic pathways- intergrate the viral DNA into the host chromosomes & latent - waits until triggered then will be shown (cold sores)
  20. What is Fission?
    the single DNA molecule replicates and the original cell is divided into two identical cells.
  21. Bacteria Kingdom holding Anabaena?
  22. Bacteria Kingdom holding Thermus aquaticus?
  23. Bacteria Kingdom holding E.Coli?
  24. Bacteria Kingdom holding Lactobacillus?
    Gram Positives
  25. Bacteria Kingdom holding Borrelia burgdorferi?
  26. Archaebacteria Kingdom  called methane makers?
  27. Archaebacteria Kingdom that live in Great Salt Lake?
    Extreme Halophiles
  28. Archaebacteria Kingdom that live in hot springs?
    Extreme thermophiles
  29. Sulfolobus
    Exterme thermophile
  30. Methanococcus is a?
  31. HIV is a ______virus?
  32. 2 differences in lysogenic vs lytic pathway
    integration of DNA and latent period
  33. Three characteristics of viruses?
    • non cellular,
    • genetic material DNA or RNA,
    • cannot reproduce on their own
  34. Herpes is a _______virus?
  35. Aquificales
    • Heat lovers
    • live in hot environments 
    • autotrophs
    • ex : aquafix
  36. Cyanobateria
    • Primary producers in the ocean
    • nitrogen fixation
    • ex: Anabaena
  37. Proteobacteria
    • Gains energy by stripping electrons 
    • ex: Salmonella
  38. Gram Positive
    • Chemoheterotroph 
    • Stain Purple 
    • ex Strep
  39. Spirochaetes
    • Gram negative
    • Spiral shaped
    • ex Syphillis & Lyme disease
  40. Chlamydia
    • STD
    • ex Chlamydia
  41. Methanogens
    • Methane producers
    • found in marshes, cow guts, swamps
    • Archaea 
    • ex- Methanococus
  42. Extreme Thermaphiles
    • heat loving
    • found in hot springs & volcanic vents
    • ex- Thermaplasma
  43. Extreme halophiles
    • Salt loving
    • found in very salty water like the dead sea & great salt lake
    • ex- Halobacterium
  44. Name the 6 Kingdoms
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Protist
    • Plante
    • Fungi
    • Anamalia
  45. Characteristics of a Living organism
    1.Are composed of cells

    2.Reproduce using DNA

    3.Grow and develop

    4.Actively take in energy from their environment

    5.Sense their environment and respond to it

    6.Maintain constant internal conditions

    7.Can evolve as groups