Ch. 3 Investigators The investigative process and the Crime Scene
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What is a crime?
It is the commission (doing) of any act that is prohibited or the omission (failing to do) of any act that is required by the penal code of an organized political state.
There can be no crime unless what?
Unless there is advanced notice that the conduct is prohibited or required. In other words it has to be written that it is against the law.
What do legislaturs do?
enact criminal laws that distinguish between felonies and misdemeanors.
What is a felony?
It is an act punishable by imprisonment for a term of one or more years, or by death.
What are misdemeanors?
Lesser offenses that may be punishable by a fine, ordinarily not to exceed $500, and or imprisonment for no more than a year.
What is a violation?
it is punishable only by fine, usually no more than $250. Example would be littering.
What is the most important skill of an investigator?
The ability to converse well with a wide range of people, from corporate executives to the homeless. This is important because much of what we learn is from people.
What is inductive reasoning ?
Moves from the specific details to a general view. It uses the factual situation of a case to form a unifying and logically consistent explanation of the crime.
What is deductive reasoning?
It creates a hypothesis about the crime. The explanation is tested against the factual situation. If the fit isn't good, the hypothesis is reformulated and tested again. The process is repeated until everything fits together.
When a criminal offense has been committed, what three immediate outcomes are possible?
1. it may go undetected, for example, a well thought out murder, where the body is disposed of in such a way that it will remain undiscovered.
2. be detected, but not reported. For example, if the loss is minor, or the victim wants to avoid contact with the police.
3. Come to the attention of the police through their observation, a complaint by the victim or witnesses, or a tip.
What is Preliminary Investigation?
The first officer to arrive at the scene of the crime after its detection and reporting.
What is the follow up investigation?
It is the police effort expended after the initial incident report is completed until the case is ready for prosecution.
What are the three broad categories of evidence?
1. Corpus delicti evidence,
What does substantiate mean?
to prove or support something such as evidence.
What does Omission mean?
Act of omission is the failure to perform an act expected to be done by a sane person.
What is commission?
doing an act that causes harm.
What is Corpus delicti?
"body of crime" principle that a crime must have been proved to have occurred before a person can be convicted of the crime.
What would you like to do?
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