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2014-02-14 16:39:52

Ch 4 Topics 1-4
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  1. The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell is known as cellular ______.
  2. In this type of metabolism, small molecules are built up into larger ones, requiring energy.
  3. In this type of metabolism, larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, releasing energy.
  4. In anabolism, smaller molecules are combined by this process which removes water molecule(s) from them together, leaving them to join together by a shared atom, thus creating a larger molecule.
    Dehydration Synthesis
  5. In catabolism, larger molecules are broken down by this process which adds water molecule(s) to the large molecule, leaving it to break down into simpler molecules containing the atoms of the added water molecule(s)
  6. What is required for metabolic reactions to proceed?
    Activation Energy
  7. Protein molecules that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions in cells by lowering the activation energy required to start the reactions.
  8. Each enzyme is specific, acting only on a particular molecule, called its ______.
  9. This is a region of the enzyme that temporarily combines with a substrate, straining the chemical bonds in the substrate, which catalyzes a chemical reaction.
    Active Site
  10. A series of enzyme-controlled reactions leading to formation of a product is known as what?
    Metabolic Pathway
  11. What is a chemical that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions, but is not consumed by the reactions?
  12. A regulatory enzyme that slows down a metabolic pathway because it’s too highly concentrated and ineffective at catalyzing chemical reactions; it usually will appear at the beginning of the pathway, and stabilizes the rate of product formation.
    Rate-Limiting Enzyme
  13. Since enzyme names are derived from their substrates, what enzyme would break down lipids?
  14. Since enzyme names are derived from their substrates, what enzyme would break down maltose?
  15. Since enzyme names are derived from their substrates, what enzyme would break down lactose?
  16. A non-protein component that helps the active site attain its appropriate shape and bind to the substrate; it may be the ion of an element, or a small organic molecule called a coenzyme.
  17. A small organic molecule composed of vitamin molecules; it is a type of cofactor.
  18. Essential organic molecules that provide coenzymes required by cells; human cells cannot synthesize them, and therefore must come from the diet.
  19. The capacity to change something, or the ability to do work; can be neither created nor destroyed, and all metabolic reactions involve it in some way.
  20. What powers the activities of life at the cellular level by changing energy from one form to another?
    Energy Transfer
  21. What is the process that transfers energy from molecules and makes it available for cellular use?
    Cellular Respiration
  22. A molecule that carries energy in a form that the cell can use, and is the primary energy-carrying molecule in a cell; consists of 3 main parts: an adenine, a ribose, and 3 phosphates in a high-energy chain.
    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  23. An ATP molecule that loses a phosphate, then only having two of them; when ATP loses the phosphate, the energy stored in the connecting phosphate chain is released, powering cellular work.
    Adenosine Diphosphate (ATP)
  24. In this process, ATP can be resynthesized from an ADP by using energy released from cellular respiration to reattach a phosphate.