a religious and social institution at the center of Islamic culture
the niche indicating the direction of Mecca
the puplit with an arched gateway opening at the lowest level
a tower from which the faithful are called to prayer
the wall of the prayer hall that is closest to Mecca
colleges for religious and legal studies
A hall with many columns
Islamic looking archs that curve in a little in the middle
a pointed arch having an S-shape on both sides
a round arch drawn from a single center
an arch with a pointed crown, characteristic of Gothic architecture.
large vaulted halls with rectangular plans and monumental arched openings
area reserved for the ruler
the chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held by the Ottoman sultans until it was abolished in 1924 by Atatürk.
a wedge-shaped or tapered stone used to construct an arch.