Chemo drug class

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Chemo drug class
2014-02-08 21:12:56

chemo drug classifactions
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  1. mechlorethamine
    (nitrogen mustard), chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®),
    ifosfamide, and melphalan

    • Alkylating
    • agents

    • Nitrogen
    • mustards
  2. streptozocin,
    carmustine (BCNU), and lomustine

    • Alkylating
    • agents
  3. busulfan

    • Alkyl
    • sulfonates
  4. dacarbazine
    (DTIC) and temozolomide (Temodar®)
    • Triazines
    • Alkyating
  5. ·  thiotepa and altretamine (hexamethylmelamine)
    • Ethylenimines
    • Alkyating
  6. Alkylating
    • Alkylating agents directly damage
    • DNA to prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. As a class of drugs, these
    • agents are not phase-specific; in other words, they work in all phases of the
    • cell cycle. Alkylating agents are used to treat many different cancers,
    • including leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, multiple myeloma, and sarcoma,
    • as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and ovary.
  7. Alkylating SE
    • Because
    • these drugs damage DNA, they can cause long-term damage to the bone marrow. In
    • rare cases, this can eventually lead to acute leukemia. The risk of leukemia
    • from alkylating agents is “dose-dependent,” meaning that the risk is small with
    • lower doses, but goes up as the total amount of the drug used gets higher. The
    • risk of leukemia after getting alkylating agents is highest about 5 to 10 years
    • after treatment
  8. cisplatin,
    carboplatin, and oxalaplatin
    • The
    • platinum drugs ) are sometimes
    • grouped with alkylating agents because they kill cells in a similar way. These
    • drugs are less likely than the alkylating agents to cause leukemia later on
  9. Antimetabolites
    • Antimetabolites
    • are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and RNA growth by substituting
    • for the normal building blocks of RNA and DNA. These agents damage cells during
    • the S phase. They are commonly used to treat leukemias, cancers of the breast,
    • ovary, and the intestinal tract, as well as other types of cancer
  10. fluorouracil (5-FU)
    • 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
    • Antimetablolite
  11. 6-mercaptopurine
  12. ·  Capecitabine (Xeloda®)
  13. ·  Cladribine
  14. ·  Clofarabine
  15. ·  Cytarabine (Ara-C®)
  16. Antimetablolite
  17. ·  Floxuridine

    ·  Fludarabine
  18. ·  Gemcitabine (Gemzar®)

    ·  Hydroxyurea
  19. Antimetablolite
  20. ·  Methotrexate

    ·  Pemetrexed (Alimta®)
  21. Antimetablolite
  22. ·  Pentostatin

    ·  Thioguanine
  23. Anthracyclines
    • are anti-tumor antibiotics that
    • interfere with enzymes involved in DNA replication. These drugs work in all
    • phases of the cell cycle. They are widely used for a variety of cancers. A
    • major consideration when giving these drugs is that they can permanently damage
    • the heart if given in high doses. For this reason, lifetime dose limits are
    • often placed on these drugs.
  24. ·  Daunorubicin

    ·  Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®)
  25. ·  Epirubicin

    ·  Idarubicin 
  26. ·  Actinomycin-D

    ·  Bleomycin

    ·  Mitomycin-C
    • Other anti-tumor antibiotics
    • Mitoxantrone
    • is an anti-tumor antibiotic that is similar to doxorubicin in many ways,
    • including the potential for damaging the heart. This drug also acts as a
    • topoisomerase II inhibitor (see below), and can lead to treatment-related
    • leukemia. Mitoxantrone is used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer,
    • lymphoma, and leukemia
  27. Topoisomerase
    • These
    • drugs interfere with enzymes called topoisomerases, which help separate the
    • strands of DNA so they can be copied. They are used to treat certain leukemias,
    • as well as lung, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers
    • Treatment with topoisomerase II
    • inhibitors increases the risk of a second cancer — acute myelogenous leukemia
    • (AML). With this type of drug, a secondary leukemia can be seen as early as 2
    • to 3 years after the drug is given.
  28. Examples
    of topoisomerase I inhibitors include
    • topotecan
    • and irinotecan (CPT-11).
  29. Mitotic
    • Mitotic inhibitors are often plant
    • alkaloids and other compounds derived from natural products. They can stop
    • mitosis or inhibit enzymes from making proteins needed for cell reproduction.

    • These drugs work during the M phase of the cell
    • cycle but can damage cells in all phases. They are used to treat many different
    • types of cancer including breast, lung, myelomas, lymphomas, and leukemias.
    • These drugs are known for their potential to cause peripheral nerve damage,
    • which can be a dose-limiting side effect
  30. ·  Taxanes: paclitaxel (Taxol®) and docetaxel
  31. ·  Epothilones: ixabepilone (Ixempra®)
    Mitotic inhibitors 
  32. ·  Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine (Velban®), vincristine
    (Oncovin®), and vinorelbine (Navelbine®)
    Mitotic inhibitors 
  33. ·  Estramustine (Emcyt®)
    Mitotic inhibitors