Sociology Chapter 1 & 2
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Sociology Chapter 1 & 2
Chapter 1 and 2
What is Sociology?
Scientific study of social behavior and human groups
What's the focus of sociology? (two answers)
1. How relationships influence peoples attitudes and behaviors
2. How societies develop and change
Who created the Sociological Imagination?
C. Wright Mills
What is the Sociological Imagination?
of the relationship between an individual and the wider society
What are the requirements of the Sociological Imagination?
It requires the ability to view society as an
Also to look
limited understanding of human behavior
What is Science?
Body of knowledge obtained by methods based on
What is Natural Science?
The study of
features of nature, and the ways they interact and change
What is Social Sciences?
The study of
of humans, and the ways they interact and change
What are sociologists?
Sociologists, study the influence society has on peoples's attitudes and behavior
(ex. the impact on marital patterns or educational choices)
What is Sociological Theory?
set of statements
that seeks to explain problems, actions or behavior
Effective theories have
not final statements
Who created the theory about suicide?
Durkheim, he suggested suicide is related to
social intergration, cohesiveness, solidarity (vs. lack of "collective consciousness")
What did Auguste Comte do?
He coined the term "sociology" emphasized the circular dependence of fact and theory.
What was Harriet Martineau more focused on?
Who was Emile Durkheim?
He is the author of "Suicide".
He developed a
to help explain all forms of society
What is Anomie?
Loss of direction
felt in a society when
of individual behavior becomes
What did Max Weber do?
Created a theory, to comprehend behavior, one must learn
people attach to actions (vs. Durkheim: statistical data are
not enough, for Weber)
What is Verstehen?
Understanding, insight, empayhy
What is Ideal type?
Construct for evaluating specific cases
Who is Karl Marx?
He has a conflict theorist pov, he saw society as divided between
two classes (business owners vs. employees)
in pursuit of their interests
What did W.E.B. Du Bois do?
Black sociologists assisted struggle for racially egalitarian society.
Founder of NAACP in 1909
Knowledge essential in
What is Double consciousness?
The division of individual's identity into
two or more social realities
What is Macrosociology?
Macrosociology, concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations
What is Microsociology?
Microsociology, stresses study of small groups often through experimental means
What did Pierre Bourdieu believe?
Capital sustains individuals and families from one generation to the next
What is Cultural capital?
Noneconomic goods reflected in knowledge of language and arts
What is social capital?
Collective benefit of social networks
What are the three major theoretical perspectives?
What is the functionalist perspective?
Emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain its
(functionalist) How did Talcott Parsons view society?
He viewed society as a vast
network of connected parts
What is manifest functions? (functionalist)
open, states, conscious functions, intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society.
What is latent functions? (functionalist)
Unconscious or unintended functions, may reflect hidden purposes
What is dysfunctions? (functionalist)
Elements or processes of society that may disrupt a social system or reduce it's stability
What is the conflict perspective?
Assumes social behavior best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
What is the Marxist view? (conflict)
Class conflict is part of everyday life in all societies, including ours.
Conflict theorists interested in how
institutions help maintain privileges
What is the Feminist view? (conflict)
See inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Proponents tend to focus on macro level
Broadened social behavior by extending analysis
beyond male point of view and male's social life
What is the Interactionist perspective?
everyday forms of social interaction (face-to-face)
to explain society as a whole
Humans are viewed as living in a world of "meaning objects": like "status symbols"
What is nonverbal communication? (interactionist)
Includes gestures, facial expressions, and postures
manipulation of symbols seen, (ex.
What is dramaturigical approach? (interactionist)
People seen as theatrical performers
What is the Sociological Approach?
Sociologists gain broadest understanding of society by
drawing on all major perspectives,
where they may overlap or diverge
What is applied sociology?
Use of sociology with intent of
yielding practical applications
for human behavior and organizations
What is Clinical sociology?
Facilitating change by
altering social relationships
or restructuring social institutions
What is basic sociology?
Seeking profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena
Explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the concept
Involves relationships between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other
Change in one variable coincides with change in another variable
What is a
Selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that poplulation
What is a
when every member of a population has the same chance of being selected
What is a
A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
Surverys, observation, experiments, existing sources
efforts to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
Sociologist join group to get accute sense of how it operates