Sociology Chapter 1 & 2
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What is Sociology?
Scientific study of social behavior and human groups
What's the focus of sociology? (two answers)
1. How relationships influence peoples attitudes and behaviors
2. How societies develop and change
Who created the Sociological Imagination?
C. Wright Mills
What is the Sociological Imagination?
An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society
What are the requirements of the Sociological Imagination?
It requires the ability to view society as an outsider would.
Also to look beyond limited understanding of human behavior
What is Science?
Body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
What is Natural Science?
The study of physical features of nature, and the ways they interact and change
What is Social Sciences?
The study of social features of humans, and the ways they interact and change
What are sociologists?
- Sociologists, study the influence society has on peoples's attitudes and behavior
- (ex. the impact on marital patterns or educational choices)
What is Sociological Theory?
It's a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions or behavior
Effective theories have predictive power
Theories are not final statements about behavior
Who created the theory about suicide?
Durkheim, he suggested suicide is related to group life, or social intergration, cohesiveness, solidarity (vs. lack of "collective consciousness")
What did Auguste Comte do?
He coined the term "sociology" emphasized the circular dependence of fact and theory.
What was Harriet Martineau more focused on?
Who was Emile Durkheim?
He is the author of "Suicide".
He developed a fundamental thesis to help explain all forms of society (functionalism)
What is Anomie?
Loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective
What did Max Weber do?
Created a theory, to comprehend behavior, one must learn subjective meaning people attach to actions (vs. Durkheim: statistical data are not enough, for Weber)
What is Verstehen?
Understanding, insight, empayhy
What is Ideal type?
Construct for evaluating specific cases
Who is Karl Marx?
He has a conflict theorist pov, he saw society as divided between two classes (business owners vs. employees) that clash in pursuit of their interests (conflict sociology)
What did W.E.B. Du Bois do?
Black sociologists assisted struggle for racially egalitarian society.
Founder of NAACP in 1909
Knowledge essential in combating prejudice
What is Double consciousness?
The division of individual's identity into two or more social realities
What is Macrosociology?
Macrosociology, concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations
What is Microsociology?
Microsociology, stresses study of small groups often through experimental means
What did Pierre Bourdieu believe?
Capital sustains individuals and families from one generation to the next
What is Cultural capital?
Noneconomic goods reflected in knowledge of language and arts
What is social capital?
Collective benefit of social networks
What are the three major theoretical perspectives?
What is the functionalist perspective?
Emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
(functionalist) How did Talcott Parsons view society?
He viewed society as a vast network of connected parts
What is manifest functions? (functionalist)
open, states, conscious functions, intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society.
What is latent functions? (functionalist)
Unconscious or unintended functions, may reflect hidden purposes
What is dysfunctions? (functionalist)
Elements or processes of society that may disrupt a social system or reduce it's stability
What is the conflict perspective?
Assumes social behavior best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
What is the Marxist view? (conflict)
Class conflict is part of everyday life in all societies, including ours.
Conflict theorists interested in how institutions help maintain privileges
What is the Feminist view? (conflict)
See inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Proponents tend to focus on macro level
Broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view and male's social life
What is the Interactionist perspective?
Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction (face-to-face) to explain society as a whole
Humans are viewed as living in a world of "meaning objects": like "status symbols"
What is nonverbal communication? (interactionist)
Includes gestures, facial expressions, and postures
manipulation of symbols seen, (ex. dress codes)
What is dramaturigical approach? (interactionist)
People seen as theatrical performers
What is the Sociological Approach?
Sociologists gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they may overlap or diverge
What is applied sociology?
Use of sociology with intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
What is Clinical sociology?
Facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions
What is basic sociology?
Seeking profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena
What is operational definition?
Explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the concept
What is casual logic?
Involves relationships between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other
What is correction?
Change in one variable coincides with change in another variable
What is a sample?
Selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that poplulation
What is a random sample?
when every member of a population has the same chance of being selected
What is a research design?
A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
Surverys, observation, experiments, existing sources
What is ethnography?
efforts to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
What is observation?
Sociologist join group to get accute sense of how it operates
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