NUR1020 Hunter2 Health Promotion + Disease Prevention

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clugger
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260950
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NUR1020 Hunter2 Health Promotion + Disease Prevention
Updated:
2014-02-09 18:23:57
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NUR1020 Hunter2 Health Promotion Disease Prevention
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NUR1020, Hunter2, Health Promotion + Disease Prevention
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  1. Health Inidcators
    health indicators reflect the major health concerns in the US in the beginning of the 21st century selected on their

    • -basis of their ability to motivate action
    • -availability of data to measure progress
    • -importance as public health issues

    achievement regarding goals are measured through health indicators
  2. Health Promotion vs. Disease and Injury Prevention
    Health Promotion is the science and art of helping individuals change their lifestyles-> optimal health (focus on the individual)

    • -enhance awareness
    • - change behavior
    • -create supportive environment (greatest impact, e.g. no smoking areas)
    • ->promote + maximize health

    Disease and Injury Prevention Strategies

    • - counseling
    • - screening
    • - immunization
    • - chemoprophylactic intervention
    • -> prevent future illness
  3. Health protection strategies relate to
    • - environmental or regulatory measures
    • - large population groups
    • - communitywide focus (e.g. laws regarding infant seats...)
  4. Health indicators 2020
    • physical activity
    • overweight and obesity
    • tobacco use
    • substance abuse
    • responsible sexual behavior
    • mental health
    • injury and violence
    • environmental quality
    • immunization
    • access to healthcare
  5. the prevention focus
    • -key concept of community based nursing
    • -cruzial investment that contributes to good health

    • 1 primary prevention (e.g. health teaching + counseling)
    • 2 secondary prevention (e.g. screening)
    • 3 tertiary prevention ( e.g. acute care -> rehabilitation activities)
  6. 4 common, health damaging, but modifiable beviors are:
    • tobacco use
    • insufficcient physical activity
    • poor eating habits
    • excessive alcohol use
  7. 3 levels o f public health practice
    • communtiy-focused practice
    • systems-focused practice
    • individual-focused
  8. population based
    • -if they consider all 3 levels of practice.
    • - intervening at all possible levels of practice
    • - interventions may affect

    • -entire population within a community,
    •  -systems that affect the health
    • -individuals and families within the community
  9. community focused practice
    • changes community norms, atitudes, awareness, practices, bahviors
    • targeted to population in community or groups within
    • measured in terms of what proportion of the population actually changes
  10. system-focused practice
    • changes organizations, policies, laws, power structures
    • the focus is on the system-> an often more effective and long lasting way to impact population health than requiring change from every single individual in a community
  11. individual focused practice
    • changes knowledge, attitudes, beliefs , practices, behaviors of individuals or families, class, group
    • -> services when identified as belonging to a population at risk
  12. nursing intervention in community based care
    • -> over time emphasis of health care has shifted to more community-based care-> numerous opportunities for nurses reg health promotion and disease prevention at all levels of prevention
    • public health intervention-> population based at all levels
  13. nursing interventions (17) are defined as
    • what the nurse can do at the individual, family, and community level.
    • 16 interventions can be used for all of the 3 levels, 1 case finding just for individual level
  14. 17 nursing interventions
    • surveillance
    • disease and other health event investigation
    • outreach
    • screening
    • case finfing (identify individual with risk factor and connect with resources)
    • referral and follow up
    • case management
    • delegated functios (direct care under control of physician)
    • health teaching
    • counseling (selfcare, coping; emotional level)
    • consultation  (seek information + generate optional solutions
    • collaboration
    • coalition building (alliances for common purpose)
    • community organizing (identify problems, goals mobilize resources...)
  15. Primary Prevention
    Ambulatory Health Care
    • nurses have an important role
    • -e.g. health teaching reg. child seats ... to all mothers who do not speak english
    • -information printed in different language in needing community 
    • -outreach to parents: information regarding resources for the health of their kids
    • -teaching and counseling in public settings regarding immunization, injury prevention, stress reduction, ....
  16. Primary Prevention
    Home Health Care
    • - need episodic care for acute health care condition -> opportunities for primary prevention are limited
    • instruments: teaching, consultation , referral and follow up ....
    • community based: nurse focuses on strengths and needs in the context of the family-> also information for other family members, other than the patient
    • important: caregiver support including referral and follow up, consultation,counseling 
  17. secondary prevention
    ambulatory health care
    • e.g. alerting clients, caregivers or family members about health screening. counseling, teaching, referral... can also be used together with screening information
    • - identify person at risk and connect to resources
    • -preschool screening, vision and hearing tests,...
    • -educating parents about screening programs available
    • -screening for hypertension
  18. secondary prevention
    home health care
    • ->involves usually short visits-> opportunities limited
    • information about screening and early treatment regarding to clients condition or other family members, cargiver
    • -> some meds might put patient at risk for another disease condition-> e.g. screening meds RA for osteoperosis
    • case management at home -> e.g. teaching of coorect insulin shot
  19. tertiary prevention
    ambulatory health care
    • - often through referral, follow up and health teaching information about community resources regarding clients chronic condition
    • ->  succesful rehabilitation
    • - also resources like emotional support, respite care,
    • -schoolbased clinics, other school nurse services, first aid, direct service,
    • in occupational setting often tertiary prevention
  20. tertiary prevention
    homem health care
    • typically chronic condition which needs episodic care-> primary role is to teach and counseling service regarding the existing condition
    • rehabilitation information for e.g. recent stroke, head injury, hip replacement...
    • several interventions might be used, also for family members or caregiver (holistic approach)
  21. conclusion
    need to focus on health rather than illness-> settings for nursing practice have evolved

    key concept of community based nursing-> focus on prevention

    different preventive strategies found on 3 levels of prevention

    • 16 interventions can be used on community, family and individual level
    • case management for individual level only

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