Micro - Intro, History and Nomenclature

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  1. Microorganisms
    Organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye
  2. Germ
    Refers to a rapidly growing cell
  3. Pathogenic
    Means disease-causeing
  4. Why do we need microbes in our lives? (5 answers)
    • Decompose organic waste 
    • Are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis 
    • Produce industrial chemicals (ethanol/Acetone)
    • Produce fermented food (Vinegar, cheese, bread)
    • Produce products used in manufacturing (cellulase) and treatment (insulin)
  5. What is used in stone-washing clothing?
    A genus of fungi called Trichoderma 
  6. Nomenclature
    • The naming of Organisms 
    • Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne)
    • Latinized
  7. Each organism has two ____?
    • 1) Genus - Capitalized 
    • 2) Species (Specific epithet)

    Both names should be underlined separately or italicized (if typing)
  8. Escherichia Coli
    • Honors the discoverer, Theodor Escherich 
    • Describes the bacterium's habitat - Large intestine, or colon
  9. Staphylococcus Aureus 
    • Name describes the clustered (staphylo-) spherical (cocci) cells
    • Also describes the gold-colored (aureus) colonies
  10. 7 types of microorganisms
    • Bacteria
    • Archea
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Algae
    • Viruses
    • Multicellular animal parasites
  11. What are the 3 domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  12. Who created the 3 domains and how are they classified?
    • Carl Woese in 1978
    • Classified by rRNA analysis
  13. Bacteria Characteristics
    • Prokaryotic- NO nucleus
    • Unicellular 
    • Contain cell wall made of peptidoglycan 
    • Some are photosynthetic 
    • Autotrophic and heterotrophic
  14. Archaea Characteristics
    • Prokaryotic - No nucleus
    • Unicellular 
    • Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan 
    • Extremophiles - Ability to survive in extreme conditions
  15. Three types of extremophiles
    • Thermophiles- Extreme heat 
    • Halophiles- High salt content 
    • Methanogens- Produce methane
  16. Fungi Characteristics
    • Eukaryotic - Contains nucleus 
    • Multicellular (Molds /Mushrooms)
    • Unicellular (Yeasts)
    • Cell wall made of chitin
    • Heterotrophic
  17. Protozoa Characteristics
    • Eukaryotic - Contains Nucleus 
    • Multicellular 
    • Unicellular 
    • NO cell wall/ ONLY cell membrane
    • Few are photosynthetic
    • Move using flagella, cilia, or pseudopods or use carrying host/environment
  18. Algae Characteristics
    • Eukaryotic - Contains nucleus
    • Both multi and unicellular 
    • Cell wall made from cellulose 
    • Photosynthetic 
    • They are classified based on theri pigment (red, green, brown)
  19. Virus Characteristics
    • Acellular - No living cellular structure
    • Must have a living host 
    • May contain DNA or RNA
    • Contain capsid(protein coat)/No cell wall
    • Some are enveloped for disguise  others are "naked"
  20. Multicellular Animal Parasites
    • Eukaryotic 
    • Multicellular 
    • No cell wall
    • Heterotrophic only
    • May have some microscopic stages to its lifetime
  21. 4 types of organisms that fall under the Eukarya Classification
    • Protists (Slime molds, algae, protozoa)
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Animals
  22. When were microbes first observed?
    1673 by Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  23. Cell Theory
    All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells 

    Robert Hooke
  24. _____ _____ said cells arise from preexisting cells
    Rudolf Virchow
  25. Spontaneous Generation
    The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a "vital force" forms life
  26. Biogenesis
    The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from preexisting life
  27. Louis Pasteur
    • in 1861 disproved spontaneous generation
    • Microbes in air can contaminate 
    • Air does not create microbes 
    • Credited with aseptic technique
  28. The Golden Age of Microbiology
    • Between 1857-1914
    • Due to rapid advances and Pasteurs theory of biogenesis
  29. Fermentation
    When yeasts turn sugar into alcohol without air.

    With air alcohol is converted into acetic acid by bacteria
  30. Pasteurization
    The process of heating the product to kill potentially harmful bacteria.

    Developed to expand the lifespan of beer and wine
  31. Ignaz Semmelweis
    • Advocated hand washing between patients 
    • Therefore incidence dropped from 35% to 1%
  32. Joseph Lister
    • Surgeon/ Applied germ theory to medical practices 
    • Cleaned instruments between surgeries 
    • Knew phenol (Carbolic acid) killed bacteria 
    • Used carbolic acid as chemical control
  33. The Germ Theory of Disease
    That microorganisms might cause disease
  34. Robert Koch
    • Proved bacteria cause disease 1876
    • Discovered Bacillus anthracis which causes anthrax
  35. Koch's Postulates
    A sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease
  36. Edward Jenner
    • Created the 1st vaccine 
    • Used a mild version of a disease (Cowpox) to give the body an immunity to a much more harsh disease (smallpox).
  37. Alexander Fleming
    In 1928 discovered the fungus Penicillium created an antibiotic that killed S. aureus 

    In 1940 Penicillin was tested and clinically produced
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Micro - Intro, History and Nomenclature
2014-02-09 07:05:53
Micro lecture, chapter 1 - Intro, History and Nomenclature
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