Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2014-02-12 10:08:21
evolution psy

Evolution of psych
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  1. For which of the following is Wilhelm Wundt primarily known?
    the establishment of the first formal laboratory for research inpsychology
  2. G. Stanley Hall is noteworthy in the history of psychology because he:
    established the first American research laboratory in psychology, launched America’s first psychological journal and was the driving force behind the establishment of the American Psychological Association.
  3. Which of the following approaches might William James criticize for examining a movie frame by frame instead of seeing the motion in the motion picture?
  4. Which of the following approaches might suggest that forgetting to pick his mother up at the airport was Henry’s unconscious way of saying that he did not welcome her visit?
  5. Fred, a tennis coach, insists that he can make any reasonably healthy individual into an internationally competitive tennis player. Fred is echoing the thoughts of:
    John B. Watson.
  6. Which of the following is a statement with which Skinner’s followers would agree?
    Free will is an illusion.
  7. Which of the following approaches has the most optimistic view of human nature?
  8. Which of the following historical events created a demand for clinicians that was far greater than the supply?
    World War II
  9. Which of the following is not an important interest of the positive psychology movement?
    positive symptoms in mental disorders
  10. The study of the endocrine system and genetic mechanisms would most likely be undertaken by a:
    physiological psychologist.
  11. The fact that psychologists do not all agree about the nature and development of personality demonstrates:
    that there are many ways of looking at the same phenomenon.
  12. A multifactorial causation approach to behavior suggests that:
    most behavior is governed by a complex network of interrelated factors.
  13. Psychology’s answer to the question of whether we are born or made tends to be:
    we are both born and made
  14. In regard to changing answers on multiple-choice tests, research indicates that _______________ changes tend to be more common than other types of changes.
    wrong to right
  15. Critical thinking skills:
    need to be deliberately taught, because they often do not develop by themselves with standard content instruction.
  16. “He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If the lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore. And thus the task of making conscious the most hidden recesses of the mind is one which it is quite possible to accomplish.”
    Sigmund Freud.
  17. “The book which I present to the public is an attempt to mark out anew domain of science. . . . The new discipline rests upon anatomical and physiological foundations. . . . The experimental treatment of psychological problems must be pronounced from every point of view to be in its first beginnings.”
    Wilhelm Wundt
  18. “Consciousness, then, does not appear to itself chopped up in bits.Such words as ‘chain’ or ‘train’ do not describe it fitly. . . . It is nothing jointed; it flows. A ‘river’ or ‘stream’ are the metaphors by which it is most naturally described.”
    William James
  19. “In the traditional view, a person is free. . . . He can therefore be held responsible for what he does and justly punished if he offends. That view, together with its associated practices, must be reexamined when a scientific analysis reveals unsuspected controlling relations between behavior and environment.”
    B. F. Skinner
  20. “I do not have a Pollyanna view of human nature. . . . Yet one of the most refreshing and invigorating parts of my experience is to work with [my clients] and to discover the strongly positive directional tendencies which exist in them, as in all of us, at the deepest levels.”
    Carl Rogers.
  21. “Our conclusion is that we have no real evidence of the inheritance of traits. I would feel perfectly confident in the ultimately favorable outcome of careful upbringing of a healthy, well-formed baby born of a long line of crooks, murderers and thieves, and prostitutes.”
    John B.Watson
  22. This theorist was the founder of behaviorism. He proposed that psychologists should abandon the study of consciousness altogether.
    1. John B. Watson
  23. This individual, who authored The Animal Mind (1908), was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology.
    Margaret Floy Washburn
  24. This influential American researcher showed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes. He also argued that free will is an illusion.
    B. F. Skinner
  25. Widely viewed as the founder of psychology, this person established the first laboratory for research in psychology in 1879.
    Wilhelm Wundt
  26. This theorist focused on the unconscious and sexuality, causing considerable controversy. He also invented psychoanalytic theory.
    Sigmund Freud
  27. This Harvard scholar was the chief architect of functionalism, arguing that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness.
    William James
  28. This advocate of humanism took an optimistic view of human nature and was a major critic of psychoanalytic and behavioral theories.
    Carl Rogers