Exam I.4

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Exam I.4
2014-02-09 09:40:57
Plant Kingdom
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  1. a.       Class Ulvophyceae, the Ulvophytes, Consists of Mainly Marine Species
                                                                  i.      Ulvophyeae
    1.       __, but important representatives are found in __
    a.       Most ulvophytes are __ or __, or they may be __ and __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Ulvophytes have a __ in which the __ persists; the __is persistent through __
    • Marine
    • fresh water
    • filamentous or composed of flat sheets of cells
    • macroscopic and multinucleate
    • closed mitosis
    • nuclear envelope
    • spindle 
    • cytokinesis
  2. 1.       The flagellated cells of ulvophytes are __ and __, like those of Charophyceae, but in contrast to motile charophytes, ulvophytes are nearly c__ and have __ resembling those of the chlorophytes
    2.       The flagellated cells may have __ as do those of Chlorophyceae
    The flagellated cells of charophyceae are always __
    • scaly or naked,
    • radially symmetrical
    • apical, forward-directed flagella
    • two, four, or many flagella
    • biflagellate
  3. 1.       Ulvophytes are the only green algae that have an __ with __ or a __, dominant life history involving __
    2.       One line of Ulvophyceae consists of __with __ cells
    • alternation of generations
    • sporic meiosis
    • diploid
    • gametic meiosis
    • filamentous algae 
    • large, multinucleate, septate
  4. a.       One genera of this group, Cladophora, is widespread in both salt water and fresh water, sometimes forming nuisance __, slimy and stinky, in freshwater habitats
                                                                                                                                          i.      Its filaments commonly grow in __, which are either free-floating or attached to rocks and vegetation
                                                                                                                                        ii.      The filaments __ and __ near the ends
    1.       Each cell contains __ and a __ with many __
    • blooms
    • dense mats
    • elongate 
    • many nuclei
    • single, peripheral netlike chloroplast
    • starch-forming pyrenoids
  5.                                                                                                                                       i.      Marine species have an __; most of the freshwater species however, do not have an __, apparently having lost this characteristic during the course of their __
    • alternation of isomorphic generations
    • alternation of generations
    • transition from marine to fresh water
  6. 1.       A second kind of growth habit among the Ulvophyceae is that of __
    a.       This familiar alga is common along __ throughout the world
                                                                                                                                          i.      Individuals of Ulva consists of a __ that is two cells thick, and a meter or more long in exceptionally large individuals                 
    • Ulva
    • temperate seashores
    • glistening, flat thallus
  7. 1.       The __is anchored to the substrate by a __ produced by extensions of the cells at its base
    2.       Each cell of the __contains a __ & __
    a.       Ulva is __, meaning one flagellated gamete is larger than the other; it has an __like that of many other Ulvophyceae
    • thallus 
    • holdfast 
    • thallus 
    • single nucleus and chloroplast
    • anisogamous
    • alternation of isomorphic generations
  8. 1.       The __marine algae, so-called because of their __cells, constitute additional evolutionary lines in the Ulvophyceae
    a.       They are characterized by very __ cells that are rarely __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The multinucleate cytoplasm is arranged around a __
    • siphonous 
    • tubular 
    • large, branched, coenocytic
    • septate
    • large central vacuole
  9. 1.       These algae, which are very diverse, develop through repeated __ without the formation of __, and consist of enormous single cells, some as long as a meter
    2.       Cell walls are produced only in the __. which are diploid with only gametes s haploid cells
    a.       Ex: codium
    • nuclear division
    • cell walls
    • reproductive phases of the siphonous green algae,
  10.                                                               i.      __is a spongy mass of densely intertwined __
    1.       Strains may be __, and nuisance growths of this seaweed spread in temperate zone
    a.       Caulerpa has become __
    b.      Ventricaria appears __, but is a large, __ attached to the substrate by several rhizoids
    c.       Another well known siphonous green algae is __
    • Codium 
    • coenocytic filaments
    • weedy
    • invasive
    • unicellular
    • multinucleate vesicle
    • Acetabularia
  11.                                                               i.      Halimeda and related genera of siphonous green algae are notable for their __
    1.       When these algae die and disintegrate, they play a major role in the generation of the __that is so characteristic of tropical waters
    a.       A number of genera of algae, including Halimeda, contain __ that significantly reduce feeding by herbivorous fish
    • calcified cell walls
    • white carbonate sand 
    • secondary metabolites
  12.                                                                                                                                       i.      Fronds of Halieda expand and grow rapidly at night, building up __ that __, which are active mainly during the day
    2.       Within an hour after sunrise the fronds turn from white to green as chloroplasts move __ from the __, or lower portions, of the __and begin to photosynthesize rapidly
    a.       At night, the chloroplasts move to the __, rendering the algae less appetizing to herbivore
    • toxic compounds that deter herbivores
    • outward from the interior
    • thallus 
    • interior of the thallus