Exam I.5

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Exam I.5
2014-02-09 10:36:54
Plant Kingdom
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  1. a.       Class Charophyceae Includes Members that most closely resemble the bryophytes and vascular plants  
                                                                  i.      Charophyceae consist of __(4)__ genera
    1.       Their relationship with one another and to the bryophytes and vascular plants, is revealed by many fundamental structural, biochemical, and genetic similarities
    unicellular, colonial filamentous, and parenchymatous
  2. a.       These include the presence of __, some of which have distinctive multilayered structures
    b.      Other similarities are __during mitosis, persistent spindles or phragmoplasts at cytokinesis, the presence of __,__, and the chemical precursors of cuticle and other molecular features
    • asymmetrical flagellated cells
    • breakdown of the nuclear envelope 
    • phytochrome, flavonoids
  3.                                                               i.      Spirogyra is surrounded by a __
    1.       Name refers to __arrangement of one or more __, with numerous pyrenoids, found within each uninucleate cell
    a.       Asexual reproduction occurs by __ and __
                                                                                                                                          i.      No flagellated cells at any stage, but flagellated reproductive cells do occur in other genera of Charophyceae
    • watery sheath
    • helical 
    • ribbonlike chloroplasts
    • cell division and fragmentation
  4. 1.       During sexual reproduction in Spirogyra, a __ forms between two filaments
    a.       The contents of the two cells that are joined by the tube serve as isogametes
                                                                                                                                          i.      Fertilization may occur in the tube, or one of the gametes may migrate into the other filament, where fertilization then takes place
    conjugation tube
  5. 1.       The zygotes become surrounded by thick walls that contain __
    a.       This protective substance is the most resistant __known
    b.      __enables zygotes to survive harsh conditions for long periods of time, before germinating when conditions improve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      Meiosis is zygotic
    • sporopollenin
    • biopolymer 
    • Sporopollenin
  6.                                                               i.      The __are a large group of freshwater green algae related to Spirogyra
    1.       They lack __ and some are __, but most are __
    a.       Most desmid cells consist of __, joined by narrow constriction—the __
                                                                                                                                          i.      __ and __ are very similar to those of Spirogyra
    • desmids 
    • flagellated cells
    • filamentous
    • unicellular
    • two sections, or semi-cells
    • isthmus
    • Desmid cell division and sexual reproduction
  7. 1.       Thousands of __species
    a.       They are most abundant and diverse in peat bogs and ponds that are poor in mineral nutrients
    b.      Some are associated with distinctive and possibly symbiotic bacteria
  8. 1.       Two orders of charophycean green algae, the __ and __, resemble bryophytes and vascular plants more clsely than do other charophytes in the details of their cell division and sexual reproduction
    2.       These orders have a plantlike __ operating during cytokinesis
    • Coleochaetales and the Charales
    • microtubular phragmoplast
  9. a.       Like the bryophytes and vascular plants, they are __, and their sperm are ultrastructurally similar to those of broyphyes
                                                                                                                                          i.      The broyphytes and vascular plants were derived from an extinct member of the charophyceae that resembled living members of Coleochaetales and Charales
  10.                                                               i.      An early basal split in the green algae gave rise to a __ and __
    1.       The __ contains most of the green algae, whereas the __ consists of the charophycean orders Coleochaetales and Charales, the zygnemataleans, some early divergent members of the charophycean lineage, and the bryophytes and vascular plants
    a.       __appears to belong at the base of the __
    • chlorophyte clade and a streptophyte clade
    • chlorophyte clade
    • streptophyte clade
    • Mesostigma 
    • streptophyte clade
  11.                                                               i.      The order Coleochaetales, with 20 species, includes both __ and __ genera that grow by division of apical or peripheral cells
                                                                ii.      __, which grows on the surface of submerged rocks or freshwater plants, has __, each containing one large chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid
    • branched filamentous genera and discoid (disk-shaped) 
    • Coleochaete
    • uninucleate vegetative cells
  12. 1.       Very similar chloroplasts and pyrenoids occur iin some of the hornworts
    a.       Coleochaete, like a number of charophytes, reproduces __ by __ that are formed singly within cells
                                                                                                                                          i.      Sexual reproduction is __
    1.       The zygotes, which remain attached to the __ stimulate growth of  alayer of cells that covers the zygotes
    • asexually by zspores
    • oogamous
    • parental thallus
  13. a.       In at least one species, these parental cells have __ similar to those occurring at the gametophyte-sporophyte junction of bryophytes and many vascular plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      These specialized cells, called __, function in __ between the gametophyte and sporophyte
    • wall ingrowths
    • transfer cells
    • nutrient transport
  14. a.       __includes 81 to 400 living species of distinctive green algae found primarily in fresh water or sometimes in brackish water
                                                                                                                                          i.      Modern forms such as __are commonly known as the __, because some of them have heavily __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Exhibit __
                                                                                                                                      iii.      The __is differentiated into nodal and __ 
    • Charales 
    • Chara 
    • stoneworts
    • calcified cell walls
    • apical growth
    • thallus 
    • intermodal regions
  15.                                                                                                                                       i.      The tissue organization in the nodal regions resembles the __of plants, as does the pattern of __
    1.       From the nodal regions arise __
    a.       In some species, files of cells grow over the __, creating a thicker, stronger __
    b.      The sperm of Charales are produced in __ that are more clomplex than those of any other group of protists
    • parenchyma 
    • plasmodesmatal connections
    • whorls of branches
    • central, filamentous axis
    • thallus
    • multicellular antheridia
  16.                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Their eggs are borne in __enclosed by several long, tubular, twisted cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      These cells are in a position analogous to the distinctive __ of seedless plants and they may serve similar functions
                                                                                                                                                                                                              iii.      Sperm are the only flagellated cells in the __ and they resemble bryophyte sperm
    • oogonia 
    • female gametangia
    • Charales life cycle
  17. a.       Zygotes are believed to germinate by meiosis
    2.       __is also a component of the walls of plant spores and pollen and is responsible for the widespread occurrence of these cells in the fossil record