Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6) Part 2

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clsweat
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261008
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Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6) Part 2
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2014-02-12 13:43:16
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Hospital Corpsman
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Hospital Corpsman NAVEDTRA 14295B
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  1. There are four bone classifications; what are they and give me some example?
    • 1. Long bones: Femur and Humerus
    • 2. Short bones: Wrist and ankle bones
    • 3. Flat bones: Skull, sternum, and scapula
    • 4. Irregular bones: Vertebrae, mandible, and pelvic bones
  2. The Skull consists of (how many) bones?
    1. How many of them form the framework of the head?
    2. How many of them are ear bones?
    • Skull consist of 28 bones
    • 1. 22
    • 2. 6
  3. The Vertebral column consists of (how many) movable or true vertebrae?
    24
  4. The spinal column is divided into five regions; what are they?
    Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal
  5. There are (how many) cervical vertebrae in the neck?
    The first cervical vertebrae is called the what?
    The second is the highly specialized what?
    • 1. 7
    • 2. the Atlas
    • 3. Axis
  6. The seventh cervical vertebra has a prominent projection that can easily be felt at the bottom of the neck.
    True or False
    True
  7. There are (how many) vertebrae in the thoracic region?
    12
  8. The thoracic vertebrae articulate with the frontal portion of the 12 ribs to form the frontal wall of the thoracic region (chest) or rib cage.
    (True or False)
    • False
    • *POSTERIOR PORTION
    • *POSTERIOR WALL
  9. There are (how many) lumbar vertebrae?
    5
  10. The thorax is formed by 12 ribs on each side and articulates posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae.
    True or False
    True
  11. The 1st seven pairs of ribs are called what?
    True Ribs
  12. The remaining five pairs of ribs are called what?
    (Hint: their cartilages do not reach the sternum directly)
    False ribs
  13. The last two rib pairs are known as what?
    (hint: Has no cartilaginous attachments to the sternum)
    Floating ribs
  14. The (WHAT) skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower extremities?
    Appendicular skeleton
  15. What are the six classifications of freely movable joints?
    • 1. Ball-in-socket
    • 2. Condyloid
    • 3. Gliding
    • 4. Hinge
    • 5. Pivot
    • 6. Saddle joints
  16. The four types of taste sensations are what?
    Sweet, Sour, Bitter and Salty
  17. Deglutition is the swallowing of food and it is divided into three phases; What are they?
    (Hint: Phase one is voluntary and Phase two and three are involuntary)
    • Phase I: The collection and swallowing of masticated food.
    • Phase II: Passage of food through the pharynx into the beginning of the esophagus.
    • Phase III: The passage of food into the stomach.
  18. What is the longest muscle in the body?
    (Hint: It extends diagonally across the front of the thigh from its origin at the ilium down to the tibia.)
    Sartorius
  19. The total blood volume of the average adult is (how many) liters?
    5 to 6 liters
  20. Plasma constitutes (____) percent of whole blood and it is a clear, slightly alkaline, straw-colored liquid consisting of about (_____) percent water.
    • 55%
    • 92%
  21. Blood of the average man contains (____) million red cells per cubic millimeter;
    Women have fewer red cells, (____) million per cubic millimeter.
    • 5
    • 4.5
  22. What is the key of the red cell's ability to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?
    Hemoglobin
  23. Red blood cells live only about 100 to 120 days in the body.
    True or False
    True
  24. The (what) is the graveyard where old, worn out cells are removed from the blood stream?
    Spleen
  25. What are white blood cells (WBC)? And what is the normal WBC count?
    • Leukocytes
    • 6,000 to 8,000 per cubic millimeter
  26. The normal clotting time is 3 to 5 minutes.
    True or False
    True
  27. What is an inherited disease characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hemorrhage?
    Hemophilia
  28. The heart is enclosed in a membranous sac, called the (_____). The smooth surfaces of the heart and pericardium are lubricated by a serous secretion called (_____). The inner surface of the heart is lined with a delicate serous membrane, known as the (_____).
    • Pericardium
    • Pericardial fluid
    • Endocardium
  29. The heart muscle, the (_____), is striated like the skeletal muscles of the body, but involuntary in action, like the smooth muscles.
     Myocardium
  30. The Contraction of the heart is called (___) and the Relaxation of the heart is called (___)?
    • Systole
    • Diastole
  31. The contraction of the heart are stimulated and maintained by the (____) commonly called the pacemaker of the heart.
    Sinoatrial (SA) node
  32. (____) is located in the floor of the right atrium near the septum that separates the atria.
    Atrioventricular (AV) Node
  33. Once the cardiac impulse reaches the far side of the AV node, it quickly passes through a group of large fibers which make up the AV bundle (also called the bundle of His).
    True or False
    True
  34. What is the largest artery in the body?
    Aorta
  35. What crosses the anterior surface of the elbow and it is the most commonly used for venipuncture.
    Median cubital
  36. The great saphenous vein originates on the inner aspect of the foot and extends up the inside of the leg and thigh to join the femoral vein in the upper thigh.
    True or False
    True
  37. Once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries, the fluid is called lymph.
    True or False.
    True
  38. It is important to recognize that cells, viruses, and other particles have unique molecules and groups of molecules on their surfaces that can be used to identify them. These molecular makers visible to the immune system are called what?
    Antigens
  39. What are the five different categories of the nervous system?
    (Hint: One nervous system subdivides into two nervous systems)
    • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • 3. Autonomic Nervous System(ANS) which is subdivided into:
    • 4. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • 5. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  40. The structure and functional unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or (___), which can be classified into three types.
    1.Sensory
    2.Motor
    3.Inter(______)
    Neuron
  41. The Brain has six major divisions; What are they?
    (Hint: M.O.M Pays the C.D.C)
    • Medulla
    • Oblongata
    • Midbrain

    • Pons
    • a
    • y
    • s

    the

    • Cerebrum
    • Diancephalon
    • Cerebellum
  42. The outer surface of the brain is called the (____). This portion of the brain is also called "____".
    • Cortex
    • "Gray Matter"
  43. What is the larges and most superiorly situated portion of the brain?
    Cerebrum
  44. What is the concerned chiefly with bringing balance, harmony, and coordination to the motions initiated by the cerebrum?
    (Hint: Harmony)
    Cerebellum
  45. The outer surface of the brain and spinal cord is covered with three layers of membranes called the meninges. What are those three layers?
    • 1. Dura Mater: the strong outer layer
    • 2. Arachnoid Membrane: the delicate middle layer.
    • 3. Pia Mater: is the vascular inner-most layer that adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord.
  46. The total quantity of spinal fluid bathing the spinal cord is about 70 ml.
    True or False
    • False
    • *75 ml
  47. The PNS includes (how many) pairs of cranial nerves and (how many) pairs of spinal nerves.
    • 12
    • 31
  48. The inner layer of the eye is the retina. It contains layers of nerve cells called (_____) and (______), which are the receptors of the sense of vision.
    Rods and Cones
  49. The middle ear is a cavity in the temporal bone, lined with epithelium. It contains three auditory ossicles; What are they?
    • Malleus (Hammer)
    • Incus (Anvil)
    • Stapes (Stirrup)

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