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Germinal period 89
- The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation 8 cell stage (different characteristics, go to particular locations).
- One celled zygote travels fallopian tube toward uterus.
- One week later more than 100 cells. Separate into two masses, outside placenta (surround and protects), inner cells become nucleus of embryo.
The process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
- First 1-3 months
- Second 4-6 months
- Third 7-9 months
Vulnerability during prenatal development 91
- Germinal-at least 60% fail to grow our properly implant
- Embryonic-about 20% aborted spontaneously (mostly chromosomal abnormalities)
- Fetal-about 5% aborted spontaneously before viability at 22 weeks or stillborn.
- About 31% of all zygotes grow and survive to become living newborn babies.
Embryonic period 89
The stage of prenatal development from approximately third through eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop.
The name for a developing human organism from about the third through eighth week after conception.
Primitive streak 91
Thin line appears down middle of embryo, becoming the neural tube 22 days after conception and eventually developing into the central nervous system.
Fourth week 91
- Head begins to take shape
- Eyes, ears, noise, and mouth start to form
- Minuscule blood vessel, well become heart, pulsates
- Embryo about 1/8 inch (3mm) long
Fifth week 91
- Buds-become arms and legs appear
- Arms, palms, webbed fingers; legs, feet, webbed toes (separate after 52 and 54 days after conception)
Seventh week 91
- Less than an inch long (2.5cm)
- Eyes, noise, digestive system, and first stage of you're formation can be seen
Eighth week 91
- inch long and recognizable as human fetus
- Has all basic organs and body parts (except sex organs)
- Moves frequently (150x per hr) random and imperceptible
Fetal period 89
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds (more than 3,000g) and organs become more mature, gradually able to function on their own.
The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth
Ninth week 92
- If embryo male, the sry gene triggers development off male sexual organs, otherwise female organs develop
- Male fetus experiences rush of testosterone, shaping the brain
- Range of brain and behavioral variations among males and among females is greater than those between the average man and women.
Third month 92
- Prenatally the head develops first (cephalocaudal head to tail), head about half of total body weight in early fetus
- Extremities firm last in a proximodistal (near to far)
- By end of third month sex organs visible
An image of a fetus (out an internal organ) produced by using high frequency sound waves (out called sonogram)
Middle three months 92
- Heartbeat stronger
- Digestive and excretory system develop
- Nails, buds fit teeth form, and hair grows (eyelashes too)
- Brain size increases 6x (developing many neurons (neurogenesis) and synapses (synaptogenesis)). Half million brain cells created per minute at peak
- Brain stem - midbrain - cortex develop and connect with cns (becomes responsive during mid-pregnancy)
- Brain matures, organs work in harmony
Age of viability 93
The age (about 22 weeksafter conception) at which a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.
Final three months 93
- Lungs expand and contract, exercising muscles used in breathing (sub amniotic fluid for air)
- Valves of heart, arteries and veins go through maturation (helps prevent brain bleeds of paper thin blood vessels)
- Fetus gains at least 4.5 lbs (2.1kg) increasing to 7.5 lbs (3.4kg) at birth
- Cortex forms folds to fit into skull
- Mother and child relationship- movement, auditory, and duet
- About 38 weeks after conception (266 days)
- Fetal brain signals release of hormones, oxytocin, prepares fetal brain for delivery and starts labor
- Average baby born after 12hrs of active labor for first births and 7hrs for subsequent births
Newborns first minutes 96
- Usually breathe and cry on own
- First breathes of air bring oxygen to lungs changing bluish color of infant to pinkish
- Eyes open wide, fingers grab, and tires stretch
- Birth attendants remove mucus from throat, cut umbilical cord (detach placenta) and examine and weigh baby
Apgar scale 97
A quick assessment of a newborns health. The baby's colour, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice, 1 and 5 minutes after birth, each time the total of all five scores is compared with the maximum score of 10 (rarely attained)
Cesarean section (c-section) 97
A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allure the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina. Rates ($) vary by Dr, hospital, day of week, than by specifics of birth (98)
Newborn survival 98
- Century ago at least 5 in 100 died in US, now 1 in 100, thanks to safe surgery, apgar, and intensive care
- Main reason for newborn death is inadequate oxygen
- Main reason for maternal death is bleeding after birth
Where US births take place 98
- Most in hospitals
- 5% in freestanding birthing centers
- Less than 1% at home (half planned, half not)
A woman who helps with the birth process. Traditionally in Latin America, a doula was the only professional who attended childbirth. Now doulas are likely to arrive at the woman's home during early labor and later with alongside a hospital's staff. Presence lowers rate of c-section and epidural anesthesia.
- Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in both defects or even death.
- Severe malnutrition and extreme stress (conditions)
- Drugs and pollutants (substances)
- Crucial factor is timing, age of developing fetus when exposed
Behavioral Teratogens 102
- Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning
- Hyperactive, antisocial, learning disabled
Threshold effect 104
- A situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level
- Some teratogens combined lower the threshold
- About 20% of all serious defects occur fir unknown reasons.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (fas)108
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, that may occur in the child of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant.
Low birthweight (lbw) 110
A body weight at birth of less than 5.5 lbs (2,500g)
Very low birthweight (vlbw) 110
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds 5 ounces (1,500g)
Extremely low birthweight (elbw) 110
A body weight at birth of les than 2 pounds 3 ounces (1,000g)
A birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy, 35 or fewer weeks after conception
Small for gestational age (sga) 111
- Our called small for dates
- A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.
- Maternal malnutrition another common reason for slow fetal growth
Cerebral palsy 112
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and/or body movements are impaired.
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage out death
Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (nbas) 113
A test often administered to newborns that measure responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes
- An unlearned, involuntary action or movement that respond to a stimulus. A reflex occurs without conscious thought.
- Breathing-struggle when face covered
- Temp-cold-shiver and bring legs in, hot-push blankets of and lay still
- Feeding-suck and do on
Immigration paradox 115
Immigrants poorer with less prenatal care, healthier newborns than native born mothers of sane ethnic background.
Symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers. Psychological and biological: stress hormone cortisol correlates between parents, weight gain, indigestion, and labor pain
Parental alliance 116
Cooperation between a mom and dad based on their mutual commitment to their children. Support each other. Half women experience physical problems after birth: healing c-section, sore nipples, problems with urination
Postpartum depression 116
A new mother's feelings of inadequacy and sadness inthe days and weeks after giving birth. (Mild baby blues, postpartum psychosis most severe form.) Fathers first responders
Parent-infant bond 116
The strong, loving connection that firms as parents hold and feed newborn.
Kangaroo care 117
A firm of newborn care in which mothers (and sometimes fathers) rest the baby between their breasts, like a kangaroo that carries her immature newborn in a pouch on her abdomen. Sleep more deeply, gain weight more quickly, spend more time alert. Use with low bodyweight newborns. May reduce deaths 20-40%.