surgical procedure that uses pieces of bone to replace lost bone or to fuse two bones together.
nuclear medicine scan using radioactive dye to visualize bones; especially useful for finding stress fractures and bone cancer.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
repetitive motion disorder caused by pressure on tendons and nerves as they pass through carpal tunnel of wrist.
broken bone with no open skin wound; also called simple fracture.
bone break where bone shatters into many small fragments.
broken bone with open skin wound; also called open fracture.
bone break causing loss of height of vertebral body; may result from trauma, but in older persons, especially women, may occur in a bone weakened by osteoporosis.
abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or connective tissue making it difficult to stretch muscle.
creatine kinase (CK)
muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle; elevated blood levels associated with heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies.
deep tendon reflexes
involuntary muscle contraction in response to striking muscle tendon with reflex hammer; test used to determine whether muscles respond properly.
occurs when bones in joint are displaced from normal alignment and ends of bones are no longer in contact with each other.
dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA)
test using low-dose x-ray beams to measure bone density; used to diagnose osteoporosis
chronic condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and fibrous soft tissue.
procedure to stabilize fractured bone while it heals; external fixation includes casts, splints, and pins inserted through skin; internal fixation includes pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires that are put into place during surgical procedure called open reduction.
fracture (FX, fx)
Fracture with incomplete break, one side of the bone breaks and the other side only bends, commonly seen in children because their bones are still pliable.
herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
protrusion of intervetebral disk between two vertebrae, which puts pressure on spinal nerves; also called herniated disk or ruptured disk; may require surgery.
fracture in which one bone fragment is pushed into another.
abnormal increase in normal outward curvature of thoracic spine, also called hunchback or humpback.
abnormal increase in normal forward curvature of lumbar spine; also called swayback
loss of muscle bulk due to muscle disease, nervous system disease, or lack of use; commonly called muscle wasting.
muscular dystrophy (MD)
one of a group of inherited diseases involving progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
large group of drugs that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis.
bone break in which fracture line runs along an angle to shaft of the bone.
externally applied brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities; orthotist is a person skilled in making and adjusting orthoses.
Arthritis caused by loss of cartilage cushion covering bones in joint, most common in weight bearing joints; results in bone rubbing against bone.
most common type of bone cancer; usually begins in osteocytes found in ends of bones; most frequently occurs in persons 10-25 years old.
broken bone caused by diseased or weakened bone, not trauma
use of a thin catheter tube inserted in intervertebral disk through skin to suck out pieces of herniated or ruptured disk; or laser is used to vaporize disk.
any artificial device used as a substitute for a body part hat is either missing from birth or lost as the result of an accident or disease.
diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rayss to see internal structure of body; especially useful for visualizing bones and joints.
correcting fracture or dislocation by realigning bone; closed reduction moves bones externally, open reduction manipulates bones through a surgical incision; open reduction usually performed before internal fixation of bony fragments.
repetitive motion disorder
group of chronic disorders with tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage caused by prolonged periods of pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Arthritis with swelling, stiffness, pain, and degeneration of cartilage in joints caused by chronic soft tissue inflammation; may result in crippling deformities; an autoimmune disease.
agnormal lateral curvature of spine.
sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
burth defect that occurs when vertebra fails to fully form around spinal cord; ranges from mild to severe; if spinal cord is damaged, paralysis results.
bone break in which fracture line spirals around shaft of the bone, caused by twisting injury; often slower to heal than other types of fractures.
ligament injury from overstretching, but without joint dislocation or bone fracture.
damage to the muscle or tendons from overuse or overstretching
a slight bone break caused by repetitive low impact forces, such as running, rather than a single forceful impact.
total hip arthroplasty
surgical removal of hip with artificial hip joint; also called total hip replacement (THR)
total knee arthroplasty
surgical reconstruction of the knee joint with artificial knee joint; also called total knee replacement (TKR)
bone break with fracture line straight across shaft of bone.