Microbiology Exam #1

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Microbiology Exam #1
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2014-02-10 11:39:50
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Microbiology Exam #1
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  1. Bacteria
    • Cell has peptidoglycan
    • Some have flagella
    • Uses a wide variety of chemicals for nutrition
  2. Archaea
    • Prokaryotes
    • No peptidoglycan
    • Consists of methanoges, extreme halophiles, & extreme thermophiles
  3. Virus
    • A cellular
    • Must use host machinery to reproduce
    • Consists of nucleic acid core, protein coat, & sometimes an envelope
  4. Protozoa
    • Unicellular eukaryotes
    • Obtain nutrients & move using specialized structures
  5. Fungi
    • Eukaryotes
    • Most are multicellular
    • Absorb organic molecules for nutrients
    • Fungi, yeast, mold
  6. Multicellular Parasite
    • Lare & Multicellular
    • More complex systems
    • Helminths
    • Have microscopic stages in life cycle
  7. Cell Theory
    All living things are composed of cells
  8. Spontaneous Generation Vs. Biogenisis
    Spontaneous Generation = idea that living organisms could arise from non living matter

    Biogenisis = living cells only come from other living cells
  9. Germ Theory
    There's a causal relationship between microorganisms & disease
  10. Pasteur
    • Fermentation
    • Disproved spontaneous generation
    • Pasteurization
  11. Koch
    • Germ Theory
    • Pure cultures
    • Tuberculosis
    • Cholera
  12. Semmelweiss
    Childbirth Fever
  13. Van Leuweenhook
    First observation of live microbes
  14. Linnaeus
    Nomenclature for organisms
  15. Hooke
    First observation of cells
  16. Virchow
    Biogenesis - living cells come from other living cells
  17. Covalent Vs. Ionic Vs. H Bonds
    • Covalent = 2 atoms share pairs of e-
    • Ionic = Chem rxn of ions of opp charge
    • H Bond = H atom covalently bonds to O or N atom
  18. Synthesis Vs. Decomposition Rxns
    • Synthesis = dehydration; atoms or molecules combine to form new, larger molecules
    • Decomposition = hydrolysis; molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms
  19. Why is water a polar molecule?
    The O region of the molecule is slightly negative & the H region is slightly positive causing an unequal distribution of charges
  20. 4 properties of water resulting from its polarity
    • Excellent solvent
    • Reactant or product in many chem rxns
    • H bonds
    • Maintains temp
  21. pH
    • Amount of H+ in a solution
    • The higher the concentration of H+ the lower the pH & the more acidic the solution
  22. Carbohydrates
    Monosaccharides -> Disaccharides; glycosidic linkages
  23. Lipids
    Fatty Acids -> Triglycerides; ester linkages
  24. Proteins
    Amino Acids -> Polypeptides; peptide bonds
  25. Nucleic Acids
    Nucleotides -> Polynucleotides; phosphodiester linkages
  26. 4 layers of protein structure
    • Primary = polypeptide chain; genetically determined
    • Secondary= amino acid chain folds & coils in a regular helix or pleats
    • Tertiary = helix folds irregularly, forming disulfide bonds, H bonds, & ionic bonds between amino acids
    • Quaternary = 2 or more polypeptides folded
  27. RNA Vs. DNA
    • RNA = ribose, single-stranded, A pairs with U, & C pairs with G
    • DNS = deoxyribose, double helix, A pairs with T, & C pairs with G
  28. Magnification
    Ratio of an object's image size to its real size
  29. Refraction
    Light bending as a result of it passing through one medium to a medium of a different density
  30. Contrast
    Visible differences in parts of the sample
  31. Resolution
    Measure of the clarity of the image, or the minimum distance of 2 distinguishable points
  32. Brightfield Microscope
    • Light shines directly through the specimen
    • Smears must be stained
    • Most commonly used
  33. Phase Contrast Microscope
    • Brings directed & refracted light in phase to illuminate the specimen
    • Used for observation of living cells
  34. Fluorescent Microscope
    Absorbs short wavelengths & emits visible light
  35. Confocal Microscope
    • Uses fluorescence
    • Sections are illuminated
    • Computer combines sections to create a 3D image
  36. Transmission Electron Microscope
    • View thin sections of specimen
    • Used to view cell's internal structures
  37. Scanning Electron Microscope
    • Electron beams aimed at specimen & displace surface electrons that are collected, amplified, & visualized
    • See surface structures
  38. Simple Stain
    • Single basic dye
    • Shows shape & arrangement
  39. Differential Stain
    • Differentiates types of bacteria based on their rxns to the stains
    • Shows cell wall components
    • Gram & Acid Fast
  40. Special Stains
    • Capsule
    • Endospore
    • Flagella
  41. Prokaryotic Cell Anatomy
    • DNA not in membrane
    • Lacks membrane-bound organelles
    • Cell wall has peptidoglycan
    • Reproduce by binary fission
  42. Eukaryotic Cell Anatomy
    • DNA in nucleus
    • Has membrane-bound organelles
    • No peptidoglycan
    • Reproduce by mitosis
  43. Bacilus
    Rod-shaped
  44. Coccus
    Spherical-shaped
  45. Pairs
    • Diplococci
    • Diplobacilli
  46. Clusters
    Staphlococci
  47. Chains
    • Streptococci
    • Streptobacilli
  48. Gram Stain & Permeability Theory
    • Crystal-violet iodine crystals form in cell
    • Gram + = alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan & crystal-violet crystals do not leave
    • Gram - = alcohol dissolves membrane due to the small amount of peptidoglycan & the crystal-violet washes out
  49. Gram + Cell Wall Structure
    • Multiple layers of peptidoglycan
    • 2-ring basal body
    • Disrupted by lysozome
    • Penicillian sensitive
  50. Gram - Cell Wall Structure
    • Fewer layers of peptidoglycan & outer layer of lipids
    • 4-ring basal body
    • Endotoxin (LPS)
    • Tetracycline sensitive
  51. Acid Fast Cell Wall Structure
    • Like gram +
    • Waxy lipid (mycolic acid) bound to peptidoglycan
  52. Simple Diffusion
    Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  53. Facilitated Diffusion
    Solute combines with a transporter protein
  54. Osmosis
    Movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  55. Basic Structure of Membranes
    • Phospholipid bilayer
    • Peripheral proteins
    • Integral proteins
    • Transmembrane proteins
    • Selective permeability
  56. Glycocalyx
    • Found in both porkaryotic & eukaryotic cells
    • Usually sticky
    • Capsules prevent phagocytosis
    • Allows cells to attach
  57. Flagella
    • Found in both prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells
    • Made of flagellin
    • Attached to protein hook
    • Anchored to the cell wall & membrane by the basal body
    • Allows cells to move
  58. Axial Fillaments
    • Found in prokaryotic cells
    • Endoflagella
    • Anchor at one end of cell
    • Rotation causes cell to move
  59. Fimbrae & Pili
    • Found in prokaryotic cells
    • Fimbrae = allows attachment
    • Pili = facilitate transfer of DNA
  60. Cytoplasm
    • Found in both prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells
    • Substance inside cell membrane
    • Contains organelles & genetic material
  61. Ribosome
    • Found in both prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells
    • Site of protein synthesis
    • Prokaryotic = 70s
    • Eukaryotic = 80s; attached to ER & free in cytoplasm
  62. Endospores
    • Found in prokaryotic cells
    • Resting cells
    • Resistant to desication, heat, & chemicals
  63. Nucleus
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Contains DNA
    • Nucleolus = region of condensed DNA
  64. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Provides transport from nucleus to golgi
    • Site of chem rxns & synthesis
    • Rough ER = ribosomes; protein synthesis
    • Smooth ER = lipid synthesis
  65. Golgi Complex
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Consists of flattened discs
    • Forms membranes
    • Secretes proteins
  66. Lysosomes & Vacuoles
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Lysosomes = formed in the golgi & store digestive enzymes & kill bacteria
    • Vacuoles = usually found in plant cells - used for storage & provide rigidity
  67. Mitochondria
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Primary site of ATP production
    • Contains 70s ribosomes & mitochondrial DNA
    • Replicates by binary fission
  68. Chloroplasts
    • Found in eukaryotic cells
    • Contains chlorophyll & enzymes for photosynthesis
    • Contain 70s ribosomes
    • Replicate by binary fission
  69. Parasitism
    A symbiotic relationship in which one organism (the parasite) exploits the other (the host) without providing any benefit in return
  70. Characteristics of Protozoa
    • Feeding & growing stage is trophozoite
    • Archaezoa move by flagella
    • Amoebazoa move by pseudopods
    • Apicomplexa are nonmotile
    • Ciliates move by cilia
    • Euglenozoa move by flagella
    • Some produce cysts
  71. Asexual Reproduction Used With Protozoa
    • Binary Fission = division into 2 daughter cells
    • Budding = protuberance from the parent cell that grows to become a daughter cell
    • Schizogony = multiple fission in which on organism divides into many daughter cells
  72. Fungal Infections
    • Called mycoses
    • Candidiasis = yeast infection, thrush
    • Cutaneous Mycoses = athlete's foot, ringworm
    • Histoplasmosis = lung infection caused by inhaling bird feces
    • Toxin Poisonings = ergot & aspergillus
  73. Algal Infections
    Dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning & ciguaterra
  74. Modifications of Helminth Anatomy
    • Reduced digestive system
    • Reduced nervous system
    • Reduced locomotion
    • Complex reproduction
  75. Life Cycle for Parasitism
    • Adult stage found in difinitive hoste
    • Each larval stage requires an intermediate host (may have > 1)
  76. How are flukes & tapeworms transmitted to new hosts?
    • Flukes = eggs hatch and go to 1st intermediate host, bore out of 1st and penetrate 2nd & develop into adults in difinitive host
    • Tapeworms = break off & passed in feces where eggs are eaten by grazing animals
  77. Flatworms Vs. Roundworms
    • Flatworms = dorsoventrally flattened; may lack digestive system; monoecious (hermaphrodite) & dioecious (seperate male & female reproductive systems)
    • Roundworms = complete digestive system; cylindrical & tapered at ends; dioecious
  78. Host Range for Viruses
    • Spectrum of host cells in which a virus can multiply
    • Determined by specific host attachment sites & cellular factors
  79. 4 Distinctive Virus Features
    • Obliguatory intracellular parasites - can only multiply using host cell machinery
    • Contain 1 type of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA
    • Contain a protein coat; some also have an envelope composed of lipids, proteins, & carbohydrates
    • Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in 1 host
  80. Viral Structure & Morphology
    • Structure = virion (fully developed virus particle composed of a nucleic acid, capsid, & possibly an envelope)
    • Morphology = polyhedral - many sided, capsid is usually a icosahedral; enveloped - roughly spherical but highly variable; helical - resemble long rods; complex - capsid with helical tail
  81. Plaque Assay & Cytopathic Effect
    • Plaque Assay = virus sample is mixed with cells & agar; after several multiplication cycles the cells are destroyed due to cell lysis to release new virus particles; the lysed area will appear clear after stain
    • Cytopathic Effect = visible effect on host cell caused by a virus that may result in host cell damage or death
  82. Lytic Cycle
    • Attachment = phage attaches to host cell
    • Penetration = phage lysozome opens cell wall; tail sheath contracts to force tail core & DNA into cell
    • Biosynthesis = production of phage DNA
    • Maturation = assembly of phage particles
    • Release = phage lysozome breaks cell wall; new viruses released
  83. Lysogenic Cycle
    • Phage attaches & injects DNA into host
    • Phage DNA integrates into host chromosomes
    • Bacteria replicate normally & replicate viral DNA
    • Prophage may leave & enter lytic cycle
    • Phage conversion; transduction
  84. Animal DNA Virus Replication
    • Attachment = virus attaches to cell membrane
    • Penetration = endocytosis or fusion; uncoating by viral or host enzymes
    • Biosynthesis = production of nucleic acids & proteins
    • Maturation = nucleic acid & proteins assemble
    • Release = by budding or rupture
  85. Acute Vs. Latent Vs. Persistent Virus Infections
    • Acute = symptoms develop rapidly but only last for a short time
    • Latent = virus remains asymptomatic for long periods
    • Persistent = disease occurs over a long period of time; generally fatal
  86. Viruses & Transformation of Human Cells
    • Increased growth -> loss of contact inhibition
    • Tumor specific antigens -> chromosome abnormalities
    • Cause tumors when injected into suseptible animals
  87. Bacterial Meningitis
    • Causative Agent = Hemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus sp.
    • Class of Agent = bacteria
    • Identifying Characteristics = normal throat & nose flora; diagnosed by lumbar puncture; vaccine for Hib
  88. Listeriosis
    • Causative Agent = Listeria monocytogenes
    • Class of Agent = bacteria
    • Identifying Characteristics = gram +; avoids digestion in macs; contaminated food (deli meat); grows at low temps; immunocompromised
  89. Tetanus
    • Causative Agent = Clostridium tetani
    • Class of Agent = bacteria
    • Identifying Characteristics = infected by spores in wounds; neurotoxin causes paralysis, lock jaw; vaccine against toxin
  90. Botulism
    • Causative Agent = Clostridium botulinum
    • Class of Agent = bacteria
    • Identifying Characteristics = spores in canned goods, sausage; flaccid paralysis, cardiac & lung failure; acid & nitrates used to prevent growth in food
  91. Leprosy
    • Causative Agent = Mycobacterium leprae
    • Class of Agent = bacteria
    • Identifying Characteristics = acid fast rod; has to be cultured specially; nerve damage leading to nodules & numbness or tissue necrosis
  92. Poliomyelitis
    • Causative Agent = Poliovirus
    • Class of Agent = virus
    • Identifying Characteristics = ingestion of feces - contaminated water; can causes paralysis, iron lung; vaccine - salk (inactive) & sabin (oral attenuated; reversion)
  93. Rabies
    • Causative Agent = Rabies Virus (Lyssavirus)
    • Class of Agent = virus
    • Identifying Characteristics = acute fatal encephalitis; virus is bullet shaped; bite of infected animal; hydrophobia, rage/calm
  94. Arboviral Encephalitis
    • Causative Agent = WNV (West Nile Virus), WEE (Western Equine Encephalitis), EEE (Eastern Equine Encephalitis)
    • Class of Agent = virus
    • Identifying Characteristic = transmitted by mosquitos; chills, fever, headache, coma
  95. Cryptococcosis
    • AKA Fungal Meningitis
    • Causative Agent = Cryptococcus neoforms
    • Class of Agent = fungi
    • Identifying Charateristics = soil fungus in bird droppings; respiratory infection & high mortality (30%)
  96. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
    • Causative Agent = Dinoflagellates
    • Class of Agent = algae
    • Identifying Characteristics = produce neurotoxin that builds up in shellfish & causes paralysis; large algal blooms referred to as "red tides"
  97. African Typanosomiasis
    • Causative Agent = Trypanosoma brucei
    • Class of Agent = protozoa
    • Identifying Characteristics = transmitted by tsetse fly; CNS - lethargy - sleeping sickness; surface proteins change preventing immune response & vaccine
  98. Prion Disease, Mad Cow, Scrapie, CJD, Kuru (humans)
    • Causative Agent = Prions
    • Class of Agent = protein
    • Identifying Characteristics = self replicating proteins with no nucleic acids; abnormal folding leads to tissue destruction; transmitted by eating contaminated tissue

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