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How many liters of blood in a human?
what is plasma primarily made of?
where are formed elements made (as well as majority of RBC production)?
Which organ controls SPEED of RBC production?
Which organ destroys RBCs?
Amino acids & the iron get recycled
How long do RBCs live?
When RBC is broken down, hemoglobin is released....
The globins are further broken down into amino acids (which can then be used for building proteins)
Heme s are broken down into iron and bilirubin
The iron gets stored in various tissue n is recycled!
Bilirubin's get transported to liver via albumin, and stored as bile
Skin, mucous membranes, secretions (tears, saliva)
First line of denfense
Inflammation! (Means Rx to damage, an alarm)
Natural killer cells
Second line of denfense
What is primary chemical associated with inflammation?
B & T lymphocytes
Specific systemic memory
Third line of defense
What is the difference between B & T Lymphocytes?
B makes antibodies--- MHC not required
T makes killers, helpers, and suppressor cells --- MHC required
MHC= major histocompatibility complexThey display protein fragments on cell surface, self n non-self types exist
What is the most common blood type?
What is the least common blood type?
Mixing different blood types, the result is always?
agglutination (CLUMPS) they become held together by the opposite antibodie
What are antibodies?
Antibodies are proteins usually found in the blood that detect antigens, bind to them and destroy them, keeping the body healthy.
Antibodies are made by B cells.
If antigens+antibodies get together, you get CLUMPS!!! agglutination
SO antigens can be self or foreign. If foreign, the body is designed to make antibodies to fight it off.
Type A produces what kind of antibodies if provoked?
Type B blood produces what kind of antibodies if provoked?
Type AB blood produces
type AB is covered with both A&B sprinkles, so they won't have a reaction if provoked AKA they don't produce ANY antibodies
Type O produces what type of antibodies
O has no antigens, SO if provoked they can produce anti-bodies for A or B
So if a Mom is Rh - and father is positive/AKA baby being positive...
then towards end of gestation, when increase in blood crossing to n from placenta. Mom's (whos neg) sees the antigen Rh for first time, her body with start producing antibodies to attack and kill fetus.
What makes fibrin?
Fibrinogen! BUT IT NEEDS TO BE ACTIVATED!
To stop bleeding (Hemostasis), what are the steps?
- 1. Vasospam (artery will constrict)
- 2. Platelets (they are attracted to collagen- which doesn't belong in the blood n spills in from damage, so if platelets see it they will pile on a whole bunch!)
- 3. Coagulation (RBC held together by fibrin which are protein threads)
Thrombin activates fibrinogen!
What makes fibrinogen activated? (which then converts into fibrin = clots)
prothrombin! BUT IT NEEDS TO BE ACTIVATED!
It is activated by prothrombin activator.
What makes thrombin?
in the liver! (RU Quadrant)
Where are majority of blood clotting factors found in the body? And which vitamin do you primarily need to make them?
warfarin (coumidin), a vit K antagonist
heparin, makes anti-thrombin enz
What mineral is primarily used to STOP blood from clotting together?