Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6) Part 3

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clsweat
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261069
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Human Anatomy and Physiology (Chapter 6) Part 3
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2014-02-12 13:47:35
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Hospital Corpsman
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Hospital Corpsman NAVEDTRA 14295B
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  1. The endocrine system sends messages by way of chemical messengers called what?
    Hormones
  2. (What) structure in the brain, synthesizes chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary gland to release hormones and to "help regulate body temperature."
    The Hypothalamus
  3. The pituitary is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain.
    True or False
    True
  4. The (_____) pituitary gland plays the more important role in influencing body functions.
    Anterior
  5. The Pituitary Gland is often called the (what) of the body as it influences many other endocrine glands.
    "Master Gland"
  6. The adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) acts primarily on the adrenal cortex.
    True or False
    True
  7. What are the two hormones that are stored by the posterior pituitary gland?
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Oxytocin
  8. What hormone promotes the conservation of water by the kidney?
    ADH- Antidiuretic hormone
  9. What stimulates contraction of the muscles of the uterus, particularly during delivery of a baby? It also plays an important role in the secretion of milk in the mammary glands of nursing mothers.
    Oxytocin
  10. The Thyroid secretes the iodine containing hormone (________), which controls the rate of cell "metabolism".
    Thyroxin (TSH)
  11. In simple goiter, the gland shrinks to compensate for the lack of iodine.
    True or False
    • False
    • *The gland Enlarges
  12. A condition know as (What) is caused by an insufficient secretion of thyroxin.
    Hypothyroidism
  13. The Adrenal cortex produces sex hormones; what are they?
    • Male (androgens)
    • Female (estrogens)
  14. The adrenal medulla secretes (what) in the presence of emotional crises.
    Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
  15. When the islet cells are destroyed or stop functioning, the sugar absorbed from the intestine remains in the blood and excess sugar is excreted by the kidneys into the urine. This condition is called (_________).
    diabetes mellitus
  16. Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the cells of the body. What are the two phases of repiration?
    Physical and Physiological
  17. The (_____) or throat, serves both the respiratory and digestive systems and aids in speech. It also aids in adjusting temperature and humidifying inspired (inhaled) air.
    Pharynx
  18. The (_____) or "voice box", is a triangular cartilaginous structure located between the tongue and the trachea.
    Larynx
  19. The (____) or windpipe, begins at the lower end of the larynx and terminates by dividing into the right and left bronchi.
    Trachea
  20. The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration. It is a (____)-shaped muscle and separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
    Dome-shaped
  21. the amount of air left in the lungs after forceful exhalation is about 1,200 ml and is know as (What)?
    Residual Air
  22. Mechanical digestion occurs when food is chewed, swallowed, and propelled by a wave-like motion called (What)?
    Peristalsis
  23. The alimentary canal (tract) is 9 meters in length, tubular, and includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
    True or False
    True
  24. The (____) is a muscular tube about 25 cm (10inches) and pierces the diaphragm on its way to the stomach.
    Esophagus
  25. The (______) is a muscular, convoluted, coiled tube, about 7 meters long and attached to the posterior abdominal wall by its mesentery.
    Small intestine
  26. The Small intestine is divided into three contiguous parts; What are they?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  27. The Duodenum is approximately how long?
    25 cm or 10 inches
  28. The Jejunum is approximately how long?
    2.5 meters or 8.2 feet
  29. The Ileum is approximately how long?
    3.5 meters or 12 feet
  30. After ingestion, it takes (___) minutes to  (__) hours for the first portion of the food to pass through the small intestine to the beginning of the large intestine.
    20 mins to 2 hours
  31. The (_____) is approximately 17-20 cm (7 or 8 inches) long and follow the contour of the sacrum and coccyx util it curves back into the short 2.5 cm anal canal.
    Rectum
  32. The (____) is a pear-shaped sac, stained dark green by the bile it contains.
    Gallbladder
  33. (_____) is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder.
    (Micturition) or Urination
  34. The bladder can hold up to (____) ml of urine.
    600 ml
  35. The Female urethra is about (__) cm long.
    4
  36. The male urethra is about (___) cm long.
    20
  37. What are the two female sex hormones?
    estrogen and progesterone

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