Chemistry Ch 18 - 20 Vocab

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Henri93
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Chemistry Ch 18 - 20 Vocab
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2014-02-09 15:53:37
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Chemistry 18 20 Vocab
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Chemistry Ch 18 - 20 Vocab
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  1. AKA the transition state-The unstable arrangement of atoms that forms momentarily at the peak of the activation energy barrier.
    Activated Complex
  2. If a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes to relieve the stress.
    Le Chatelier's Principle
  3. Reactants are converted to products in a single step.
    Elementary Reaction
  4. A state of balance when the forward and reverse reactions take place at the same rate.
    Chemical Equilibrium
  5. The measure of disorder of a system
    Entropy
  6. The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to react.
    Activation Energy
  7. A substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst. They make the reaction slow or even stop.
    Inhibitor
  8. Energy available to do work.
    Free Energy
  9. occurs naturally and favors the formation of products at the specified conditions; depends on enthalpy and entropy changes
    Spontaneous reaction
  10. A measure of the speed of any change that occurs within an interval of time. It's usually expressed as the amount of reactant changing per unit of time.
    Rate
  11. States that atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide with one another, provided that the colliding particles have enough kinetic energy.
    Collision Theory
  12. A reaction in which the conversion of reactants to products and the conversion of products to reactants occur simultaneously. It's shown by a double arrow
    Reversible Reaction
  13. Indicates whether the reactants or products are favored in a reversible reaction.
    Equilibrium Position
  14. the ratio of the product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium. When aA+bB=cC+dD, the equation for this is ([C]^c X [D]^d)/([A]^a X [B]^b).
    Equilibrium Constant (Keq)
  15. Equals the product of the concentrations of the ions each raised to a power equal to the coefficient of the ion in the dissociation equation.
    Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
  16. An ion that is found in both salts in a solution.
    Common Ion
  17. The lowering of the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of a common ion.
    Common Ion Effect
  18. A reaction that does not favor the formation of products at the specified conditions.
    Nonspontaneous Reaction
  19. States that the natural tendency is for systems to move in the direction of maximum disorder or randomness.
    Law of Disorder
  20. An expression for the rate of a reaction in terms of the concentration of reactants.
    Rate Law
  21. A proportionality constant relating the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction.
    Specific Rate Constant (k)
  22. In this reaction, the reaction rate is directly proportional to the concentration of only one reactant.
    First Order Reaction
  23. the maximum amount of energy that can be coupled to another process to do useful work
    Gibbs free-energy change
  24. The series of elementary reactions or steps that take place during the course of a complex reaction
    reaction mechanisms
  25. is a product of one of the steps in the reaction mechanism
    intermediate
  26. refers to the activated complex
    transition state
  27. an equation showing either the oxidation or the reduction that takes place in a redox reaction
    half-reaction
  28. a method of balancing a redox equation by balancing the oxidation and reduction half-reactions separately before combining them into a balanced redox equation
    half-reaction method
  29. a process that involves complete or partial loss of electrons or a gain of oxygen; it results in an increase in the oxidation number of an atom
    oxidation
  30. a positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate its degree of oxidation or reduction; the oxidation number of an uncombined element is zero
    oxidation number
  31. a method of balancing a redox equation by comparing the increases and decreases in oxidation numbers
    oxidation-number-change method
  32. a reaction that involves the transfer of electrons between reactants
    oxidation-reduction reaction
  33. the substance in a redox reaction that accepts electrons; in the reaction, the oxidizing agent is reduced
    oxidizing agent
  34. another name for an oxidation-reduction reaction
    redox reaction
  35. the substance in a redox reaction that donates electrons; in the reaction, the reducing agent is oxidized
    reducing agent
  36. a process that involves a complete or partial gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen; it results in a decrease in the oxidation number of an atom
    reduction

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