Outline Study Guide

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Outline Study Guide
2010-08-18 14:55:27
Written Communication

Everything on outline
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  1. Communication
    a general term for the exchange of information, feelings, thoughts & acts between two or more people, including both verbal & non-verbal aspects of this interhcange.
  2. Why Study Communication?
    because communication takes place in so many ways
  3. Communication examples:
    • conversations
    • conferences
    • conventions
    • meetings
    • letters
    • memorandums
    • reports
    • manuals
    • advertisements
    • press releases
    • documents
    • records of all kinds
    • electronic communications
  4. Components of the Communication process
    • Sender
    • Receiver
    • Message
    • Enviroment/Context
    • Channel
    • Noise
    • Feedback
  5. Sender
    • one who encodes & deliveres the message
    • (the primary responsibility for communication success or failure)
  6. encoding
    converting an idea into words or gestures that will convey meaning
  7. Receiver
    • one who receives & decodes a message
    • (processes the message and reacts both verbally & noverbally)
  8. decoding
    the process of transformating the symbols we receive into ideas & feelings
  9. encoding & decoding of messages can be influenced by all of the following:
    • personal experiance
    • feelings
    • ideas
    • moods
    • gender
    • occupation
    • religion
    • political views
  10. message
    • a sendors words or actions
    • the content of any communications
  11. how many elements does a message have?
  12. meanings
    • * ideas & feelings you have about different things
    • * that would include the connotation & denotation
    • * the emotional association of a term
  13. The objective of an emotion
    free meaning of a term
  14. Symbols
    words or action that reprsents meaning
  15. When our minds choose words to convey messages
  16. What affects the meaning of words
    facial expressions, gestures and tone of voice
  17. Symbols are used to do what
    encode & decode messages
  18. Form or Organization
    • a message should be organized so that the receiver does not become confused
    • make sure it can be decoded
    • that it's not overloaded
    • or have exessive verbal or written information
  19. Enviroment
    the physical location & personal history surrounding the communications
  20. context
    the whole situation, background or enviroment relevant to a particular event, personality, creation, etc
  21. context might include some basic rules of
  22. what tells you what kinds of messages & behaviors are proper in a given context with a particular person or group of people
  23. formal rules
    are parliamentry procedure
  24. Social rules
    knowing the group & what is acceptable
  25. channel
    the medium through which a message passes from sender to receive
  26. The two basic channels used for communication are:
    Sound & light (digital communications)
  27. sound
    words are carried by sound waves
  28. light
    facial expressions, gestures, movements are carried by light waves
  29. noise
    • a force that interferes with the porcess of communication
    • any stimulas that gets in the way of sharing communication
  30. 2 types of noise
    • external noise- sights & sounds that distract
    • internal noise- thoughts & feelings that get in the way
  31. feedback
    the discernable response of the receiver that tells the sender whether a message was heard or seen & understood
  32. the meaning sent and meaning received may not
    always be the same
  33. good communication
    should have a clear message because there are many things that complicate the communication process
  34. think before you
    speak (communicate)
  35. Types of communication processes
    • intrapersonal communication- Intra people inside
    • interpersonal communication- Inter people outside
  36. Intrapersonal communication
    communicating with oneself includes all of our thoughts, ideas & feelings
  37. Intrapersonal communication can be affected by the following:
    • Self concept- the relatively stable set of perception each individual holds of himself or herself
    • Sel esteem- the degree of regaurd a person holds for himself or herself
  38. Interpersonal communication
    • communication in which the two parties involved consider one another as individuals
    • usually involves only two people communicating directly
  39. Interpersonal communication is affected by
    the climate of the relationship
  40. climate defined
    the emotional tone of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partnership sends & recives
  41. characteristics of interpersonal communication
    • irreplaceability
    • self-disclosure
    • interdependence
    • small group communication
    • public communication
    • mass communication
  42. irreplaceability
    there is nothing like direct communication between two people
  43. self-disclosure
    the process of delibrately revealing information about oneself that is significant & that would not normally be known by others
  44. interdependence
    a dynamic of being mutually responsible to & sharing a common set of principles with others
  45. interdependence & dependence differs
    in that an interdependent relationship implies that all participants are emotionally, economically and or morally "interdependent"
  46. small group communication
    most common in social & business settings
  47. public communication
    • usually considered public speaking
    • (one person speaking with limited verbal feedback)
  48. mass communication
    the transmission of message to large, usually widespread audiences via broad cast means
  49. Language
    a dynamice set of visual, auditory or tactile symbols of communication & the elements used to manipulate them
  50. rule-governed
  51. syntax
    • (a verb before a noun) the way your put things together
    • rulse governing the arrangements of words in a sentence
  52. semantics
    rulse dealing with the meanings of words
  53. language can be an attitude sharper through:
    • credibility
    • self-esteem
  54. credibility
    the beliveability of a speaker or other source of information
  55. self-esteem
    lends to credibility
  56. language can be distored by a misinterpretation of verbal symbols
    • Equivocal terms(multiple)
    • Relative terms
    • Eqphemisms
    • Emotive terms
  57. Equivocal terms
    words that have more than one dictonary meaning
  58. relative terms
    words that gain their meaning through comparison
  59. Euphemisms
    pleasant term subsituted for more direct, less pleasant terms
  60. Emotive terms
    • denotation-the objective, emotion free meaning of words
    • connotation- the emotional association of words
  61. non-verbal communication characteristics
    • recognizable signs
    • transmits feelings
    • ambiguous response
    • culture appropriate
  62. recognizable signs
    in order for non verbal communication to occur, you must use signs, gestures, posture, etc that are recognizable to the participants
  63. transmits feelings
    good non verval communication will not only give meaning, but will also cause the receiver to feel emotion
  64. ambiguous response defined
    a disconfirming response with more than one meaning, leaving the other party unsure of the responder's position
  65. non-verbal communication is always
  66. Ambiguous
    can be very revealing but it also can be obscure & indefinte, you should never assume your interpretation of a behavior is absolutely accurate
  67. culture appropriate
    non verbal communication varies from one culture to another
  68. non verbal cues in one culture may be read
    as something different in another culture
  69. Types of non verbal communication
    • kinesics
    • time sense
    • touch
    • physical attractiveness
    • clothing
    • proxemics
  70. kinesics
    the study of body movements, gestures & posture
  71. our posture when communication can send many messages about our own
    attitudes & intrests in what we are trying to convey
  72. facial expressions
    it is impossible to descrive the number & kinds of expressions you can produce with your face
  73. eyes
    add to other facial expressions & you have created the most complicated channel of communication there is to understand
  74. time sense
    being on time & having good sense of time is an important form of non verbal communication
  75. touch
    • communicates many messages and interpretation can depend on a variety of factors
    • (such as ethnic background or gender of those involved)
  76. physical attractiveness
    how much care you take in presenting yourself
  77. clothing
    could be included as a part of physical attrativeness
  78. clothing communicates many types of messages:
    • economic level
    • educational level
    • trust worthiness
    • social position
    • level of sophistication
    • level of success
    • moral character
  79. proxemics
    the study of how people & animals use space
  80. distance between commnuicating
    can send many messages
  81. body spacing & posture are
    unitentional reactions to sensory fluctuations or shifts, such as subtle changes in the sound & pitch of a person's voice
  82. social distance between people is
    reliably correlated w/ physical distance, as are intimate & personal distance
  83. delineations:
    • intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering
    • close phase- less then 6 in.
    • far phase- 6 to 18 in.

    • personal distance for interactions amoung good friends
    • close phase- 1.5 to 2.5 feet

    • social distance for interactions amoung acquaintances
    • close phase- 4 to 7 feet
    • far phase- 7 to 12 feet

    • public distance used for public speaking
    • close phase- 12 to 25 feet
    • far phase- 25 feet or more
  84. misinterpretaion of non verbal symbols
    • misinterpretation is a constant problem with non verbal communication
    • mainly because of cultural differences in what gestures mean & in proxemics
  85. components of listening
    • hearing
    • attending- the process of focussing on certain stimuli from the enviroment
    • understanding
    • remembering
  86. poor listening behaviors
    • psendo listening
    • stage hogging
    • defensive listening
    • selective listening
    • faulty assumptions
  87. pseudo listening
    (fake) giving the appearance of listening only
  88. stage hogging
    not listening because you are only intrested in what you have to say
  89. defensive listening
    you hear the speaker arguing with you even when the speaker is elaborating on your idea, asking you to elaborate on it, or fundamentally agreeing with you
  90. example of defensive listening
    taking innocent comments as personal attacks
  91. selective listening
    this is when a person hears another but selects to not attend to what is being said by choice or desire to hear some other message
  92. faulty assumption
    incorrect assumptions that lead us to believe that we have heard the message before or that the message is too simple or too complex to understant
  93. types of listening
    • informational listening
    • evaluateive listening
    • empathetic listening
  94. informational listening
    listening to understand another person or idea
  95. evaluative listening
    listening in which the goal is to judge the quality or accuracy of the speakers remarks
  96. empathetic listening
    listening in which the goal is to help the speaker solve a problem
  97. improving listening
    • do not judge prematurely
    • look for the key ideas of what is being said
    • listen for emotions
    • ask questions
    • analyze what you have heard
  98. Order of Inclusion in a Business Letter
    • Dateline
    • Inside Address
    • Salutation
    • Body
    • Complimentary Close
    • Signature Block
    • Reference Initials
    • Enclosure Reminder
  99. Copy Notation
    Indicates that copies were made of a buisness letter & who received copies
  100. Sincerely
    A polite, formal way to end a letter
  101. Body
    Actual message of the letter
  102. Block
    Style of letter in which all lines of type begin at the left margin of the page
  103. Block & Modified Block
    Two currently accepted formats for business letters
  104. Key to a good business letter
    To save the reader time & convey the message in best way possible
  105. Must be determined before a good, clean, business letter can be written:
    • Objective of the letter
    • who is the reader?
    • What is the appropriate message concerning the specific sitation
  106. Indentification
    Component of a resume should include your name, address, phone number, & email address
  107. Inside Address
    Includes the address of the person or organization receiving a business letter
  108. Dear Ladies & Gentleman:
    (Attention Line) Should be used when sending a business letter to an organization in which you are not sure exactly who the letter should be addressed to
  109. Block style
    style of letter is most widely used because it is easy to format
  110. Mixed
    Style of punctuation uses a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary close
  111. open
    style of punctuation uses no punctuation after the salutation or the complementary close
  112. ragged or unjustified
    justification recommended for business letters
  113. memos
    • can be used to explain policies, procedures & guidelines within an organization
    • vital means of exchanging information with an organization
  114. appropriate way to close a memo
    • a request for action
    • a summary of the contents of the memo
    • a simple closing thought if a summary is not necessary
  115. 3 x 5 ratio
    good geometrical size for an ad
  116. logo
    a public relations term for the typestyle & design of the name of your funeral home
  117. 3 sections
    ad that works well will have it's elements divided in this amount
  118. advertisement
    any paid form of non-personal presentation & promotion of ideas, goods & services by an identified sponsor
  119. persuasive
    is what effective advertising
  120. focal point/attention getter
    should be placed in the center of the upper left hand quarter of the page
  121. product
    starting point of advertising
  122. creativity
    can double the amount of readership of an ad
  123. objective
    • a brief statement of your career goals on a resume
    • part of a resume that conveys a sense of direction to a prospective employer
  124. experience
    should include jobs, volunteer activities & internships
  125. references
    part of the resume that should be "Available on request"
  126. resume
    • document that will increase your visibility for a job search
    • what can give a prospective employer an idea of what you can contribute to their company
    • considered to be your first contact with an employer
  127. chronological resume
    • considered the traditional format
    • simply looks at the various types of work you have done, the specific task you have been assigned & accomplishments you have made in the workplace
    • places the major focus on the occupations that you have had in the past
    • shows your well-rounded experience
    • summarizes your skills & accomplishments under each job listed
  128. Funtional resume
    • minimizes a sporadic employment
    • gives no specific dates of employment
    • its becoming more popular
    • minimizes the number of companies you have worked for
    • works best for applicants that have been employed for 10 years or longer at the same place
    • minimizes your age