NUR1020 Hunt Chapter 8: Health Promotion + Disease + Injury Prevention for Maternal/infant Populati

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  1. Significance of Health Promotion and Disease Preventions
    • times have changed-> focus shifted from focus on combating infectious diseases to addressing chronic conditions and unintentional injuries.
    • health promotion-> primary disease and injury prevention strategy,
    • -> applies to healthy people but also to those who do have a health condition

    disease prevention -> preventing a disease  from occurring and injury prevention

    • recommendations from Healthy People 2020
    • -> foundation for all health promotion and disease prevention action for nurses
  2. Healthy People 2020 goals
    • higher quality
    • longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, premature death,
    • achieving health equity
    • eliminating disparities
    • improving health of all groups
    • creating health promoting environments (social and physical)
    • promoting quality of life
    • healthy development
    • healthy behaviors across all life stages

    (report is based on mortality and morbidity statistics including primary causes)

    • -> many causes preventable
    • -> negative impact can be minimized by early detection and intervention
  3. Health disparities exist by
    • gender
    • race or ethnicity
    • income <-> education (intrinsically related)
    • disability
    • rural living
    • sexual orientation
  4. IM = Infant Mortality rate
    • significant indicator of health disparity
    • IM Rates
    • US 7/1000
    • African American 13.6/1000
    • American Indians 8/1000
    • White 5.8/1000

    proportional discrepency between blacks and whites remain largely unchanged over the last 20 years (in all it has declined though)
  5. believed causes for disparities by ethnics
    • complex interaction of
    • -genetic variations
    • -environmental factors
    • -specific health behaviors
  6. percentage of kids living in poverty has increased :
    now 19% (age 0-17) <-> 18% 2008

    US child poverty is the highest of the top 15 richest countries

    poverty limits chances for kids to grow up healthy: no grocery stores, but liquorstores, fast food,...

    no access to primary health care providers

    30% of kids uninsured no usual source of health care (compared to 3%)

    substandard houzing -> hazards -> more lead poisoning and asthma

    • -> need to develop access to fresh food, primary health care, polution free environment, safe housing _> improve childrens' long-term health
  7. percentage of poor among the elderly
    • today : 9.7%
    • 1959: 35%
  8. maternal/ infant populations
    • health of infants and children have farther reaching implications than other population groups
    • critical importance as a predictor of the health of the next generation
  9. healthy people 2020
    objectives for maternal and infant health
    • reduce maternal deaths
    • reduce maternal illness + complications due to pregnanacy
    • increase rater of women receiving early and adequate care
    • reduce cesarean births among low risk births
    • reduce low and very low birth weight
    • reduce pretirm births
    • increase rate of healthy infants to put to sleep on their back
    • increase abstinence from alcohol, cigarettes, drugs among pregnant women
    • reduce occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrom
    • increase breast feeding rates
    • increase access for kids with special health care needs to a
    •      -medical home
    •      - family centered ...system
    • reduce fetal and infant deaths
    • increase rate of women taking prepared childbirth classes
    • increase in women with recommended weight gain during pregnancy
    • reduce rate of children with metobolic disorder to experience developmental delay through screening, teaching,...
  10. leading cause of death in children 5-14
    • moto vehicle accidents
    • drunk drivers, unrestrained kids
    • 25% pedestrian accidents
  11. screening at age 5
    vision, hearing , BP, lead exposure, cholesterol and developmental screening
  12. the most important topic to cover with all families with children is safety
    • childseats reduce risk of death 71%
    • on infants and 54% for preschool children

    airbags are not safe for kids under 13 and can cause fatalities-> kids under should go in the back

    bike helmets -> lots of head injuries -> death or disability
  13. Obesity in children have increased dramatically
    obesity rates in children have doubled among children since 1980,

    5% to 10% (age 6-11)

    2% increased to 6% (age 12-19)

    • obesity-> development of chronic illness in adulthood type 2 diabetes, asthma, heart disease...
    • significant racial disparities
  14. initiatives to avoid obesity in children
    • increasing physical activity
    • increasing of daily intake of fruits, vegetables,
    • reduce fat intake
    • adequate sleep for children

    middle childhood: secondary prevention
  15. adolescence
    what are the major risks ?
    accompanied by dramatical physical, cognitive, social and emotional changes

    • almost half of all deaths (age 16-20) are from unintentional injury
    • -less likely to wear seatbelts
    • -alcohol involved in around 31% of motor vehicle  accidents fatalties
    • -suicide is the third leading cause of death
    • - most of new HIV cases among age 13-29
    • -85% riding bike without helmet
    • -18% carried a weapon
    • -39% unprotected sex
    •  all in all rates became better compared to 2009 or 1991
    • 18% exercise a lot per day
    • 22% eat halthy (5 servings of fruit and vegetables...)
    • black students less likely compared to whites to smoke, binge drink but more likely to have unprotected sex
  16. objectives for
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NUR1020 Hunt Chapter 8: Health Promotion + Disease + Injury Prevention for Maternal/infant Populati
NUR1020, Hunt Chapter 8: Health Promotion + Disease + Injury Prevention for Maternal/infant Populations, Children, and Adolescents
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