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Secondary response is the same as _____.
There is the same amount of ___ in primary response as there is in secondary response. What increases in secondary response? Why?
IgM stays the same. IgG increases due to memory cells.
What is the first line of defense? When does it set in?
- intact skin
- mucous membranes and their secretions
- sets in immediately
What is the second line of defense? When does it set in?
- phagocytic white blood cells (neutrophils)
- sets in a minute to an hour
What is the third line of defense? When does it set in?
- B&T lymphocytes
- sets in 10-14 days
What is nonspecific defense?
- innate (born with it)
- 1st and 2nd lines of defense
What is specific defense?
- 3rd line of defense
- once it sees one organism, there is an immediate response when it shows up again
What are the blood borne molecules part of innate immune system?
- acute phase proteins
- tumor necrosis factor
What are the 2 major mediators of inflammation?
histamine and Bradykinin are released by what?
What are the steps of phagocytosis?
- 1. attachment (to pseudopods)
- 2. ingestion (of bacteria forming phagosome, moves toward lysosome)
- 3. fusion (of phagosome and lysosome)
- 4. digestion (or bacteria into nucleotides, peptides)
- 5. release (of peptides into surrounding environment)
most important killing mechanism
superoxide generation (H2O2)
What can T-Lymphocytes destroy?
- intracellular microbes
- malignant cells
- cells of transplanted organisms
- self cells (autoimmune disease)
Which TH cell produces cytokines and is part of cell-mediated immune response?
Which TH cell produces cytokines and is part of humoral response?
Which organs are the one in which lymphocytes arise and mature (bone marrow, thymus, etc)?
Which organs are the sites where mature lymphocytes respond to foreign antigens (lymph nodes, spleen, mucosa associated lymphoid tissues and cutaneous immune system)?
cardinal features of immune responses
- 1. specificity
- 2. diversity
- 3. memory
- 4. self-regulation
- 5. discrimination of self from non-self
an antigen molecule must have:
- high molecular weight
- chemical complexity
IgM is not involved in ____ and is only for the production of ___.
treatments for allergies
- antihistamines, cortisone
- stabilize mast cells
- therapy to bind up IgE (in extreme cases, young children)
hypersensitivity type that is IgE mediated
hypersensitivity that is IgG/IgM mediated
hypersensitivity related to immune complex (Ab/Ag)
hypersensitivity that is delayed; related to poison ivy, cheap jewelry, etc