chapter 5 forensic psychology

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  1. used to sustain serious felony charged, including robber and murder
    testimony of an eyewitness
  2. according to the innocence project, ___ of the first 218 people exonerated on the basis of DNA had been mistakenly identified
  3. mistaken eyewitness identifications account for more wrongful convictions that do ___ ____
    false confessions
  4. victim eyewitness testimony is often more convincing to the jury, even if
    other eyewitnesses testify for the defendant
  5. eyewitnesses wanting to help the police solve a crime, that may feel implicit pressure to identify someone even if the police do no explicitly encourage them to do so is an example of
    mistakes that can occur during the investigation
  6. eyewitnesses must remember experiences that are typically brief, complicated and sometimes frightening. so they are especially prone to
  7. this limits the amount of attention that can be paid to other aspects of a situation, while we devote more time to the physical aspects of someone who has a weapon
    weapon focus effect
  8. a reasonable explanation for the presence of a weapon affecting the processing of ___ ____ is that their focus on the weapon and their attempt at language comprehension competed for limited processing time
    auditory information
  9. 3 stages of memory
    encoding, storage, retreival
  10. the complexity of a stimulus also affects its ____
  11. although mild stress or arousal may indeed heighten alertness and interest in a task, extreme stress usually causes the person to encode the information ____ or _____
    incompletely or inaccurately
  12. characteristics of the ____ also affect encoding
  13. when we have experience perceiving a stimulus we usually notice its details ____ than when we perceive something new
  14. memory ____ as the retention interval, the period of time between viewing an event and being questioned about it, increases
  15. activities that eyewitnesses carry out or information they learn after they observe an even which is termed ____ ____ can alter their memory of the event
    post event information
  16. exposure to photographs reduces both correct identifications and correct rejections
    identifications; rejections
  17. in recalling information from our memory, we often generate memories that are accurate but are not _____ to the task at hand. Victims sometimes pick from a lineup the person whom they have ___ ____ but who is not the actual criminal
    relevant; seen before, this term is unconscious transference
  18. method in which a researcher stages a crime or shows a filmed crime to unsuspecting participant witnesses
    experimental methodology
  19. the value of an experiment is that the researcher knows exactly what the witnesses experienced, what is this called?
    ground truth
  20. the study may not approximate the real world conditions under which eyewitneses observe crimes and police interact with eyewitnesses
    ecological validity
  21. the factors that are under the control of the criminal justice system
    system variable
  22. refers to factors that are beyond the control of the justice system and whose impact on the reliability of the eyewitness can only be estimated
    estimator variable
  23. does not directly affect the reliability of an identification, but is a measurement of some process that correlates with reliability
    post diction variable
  24. system variables hold more promise for ____ ____ in eyewitness identification
    preventing errors
  25. research on estimator variables is important because it can help us understand situations in which eyewitnesses experience problems in ____ and _____
    perception and memory
  26. eyewitnesses are usually better at ____ and ____ members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another. aka the ____ race effect
    recognizing and identifying; other
  27. cognitive interpretations hold that there are differences between faces of one race and faces of another race in terms of the variability in features
    physiognomic variability. for eyewitnesses to correctly identify members of other races, they must focus on the characteristics that distinguish that person from other people of the same race
  28. mot of us have more experience with members of our own race, so our natural inclination is to focus on the features that distinguish members of ___ ___ ____. We have less practice distinguishing one member of another race from other people of that race.
    our own group.
  29. there is no clear evidence that one gender is ____ to the other in the ability to ____ people from within lineups
    superior; identify
  30. older eyewitnesses and young children make ___ errors than younger and middle aged adults
  31. old and young eyewitnesses are more likely to choose someone from a lineup in which the culprit is ____
  32. when a lineup contains the culprit, young children and elderly people perform as ____ as adults
  33. an important aspect of a system variable is that because it is controllable, it can be ______
  34. an interviewing protocol based on various concepts of memory retrieval and social communication
    cognitive interview
  35. in a cognitive interview the interviewer engaged the witness in order to develop _____, asks the witness to provide a ____ , and finally, probes for details with ______ questions. The interviewer allows the witness to direct the subject matter, interrupts infrequently, and listens actively
    rapport; narrative; specific
  36. reinstating the context in which a witness ____ and event increases ______ of information stored in memory
    encoded; accessibility
  37. an investigator should instruct the witness that the ___ may or may not be present in a lineup
  38. in the traditional police lineup, all eyewitnesses see the suspect and the fillers simultaneously
    simultaneous presentation
  39. the witness makes a decision about each lineup member before seeing the next lineup member
    sequential presentation
  40. sequential lineups result in _____ identification attempts than simultaneous presentation, so both mistaken and accurate identifications are _____
    fewer; reduced
  41. sequential presentations may be advantagous in situations in which the composition of the lineup is ____, like when an innocent suspect matches the description
  42. end to identify the person who, in their opinion, looks most like the culprit relative to other members of the group. they make...
    relative judgements
  43. when the eyewitness compares each member in turn to his or her memory of the perpetrator and, on that basis, decides whether any person in the lineup is the individual who committed the crime. in other words they make an...
    absolute judgement
  44. receiving feedback from a lineup admin is bad because of the ______ the witness expresses during a trial
  45. jurors overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses because they appear to be _____ of several of the factors that _____ eyewitness accuracy
    unaware; compromise
  46. in an expert testimony, the expert's task is to provide the jury with a ____ based frame of reference within which to evaluate the eyewitnesses evidence
  47. expert testimony sensitizes jurors to problems in witnessing and does not make them generally ______ of _____ witnesses
    skeptical of all
  48. expert testimony is _____ and is available in only a small fraction of cases
  49. in order to allow jurors to make accurate decisions, alerting jurors of the _____ of eyewitnesses helps
  50. when a child is picking from a lineup, it is especially important for them to know that it is acceptable to ____ choose anyone from the lineup
  51. the most likely reason for a child to become involved with the legal system is because of
    CSA (child sexual abuse)
  52. most CSA cases rest solely on the words of the victim because these cases typically ___ any ____ evidence
    lack, physical
  53. it is crucial that the child witness is accurate, good interviewers ask children ____ ended questions
    open. aka saying the event in their own words
  54. interviewers try to avoid using suggestive questions, or questions which
    assume information not disclosed by the child
  55. although children tend to provide more detail in response to specific questions than to open ended questions, the use of specific questions comes at a cost. Children are ___ accurate in answering ____ questions
    less; specific
  56. although source monitoring improves with age, children often recall information from one event as having ____ in another
  57. repetition enhances memory for aspects of the incident that are held constant, but ____ the ability to recall details that ____ with each occurrence
    impair; vary
  58. careful analysis of the content of a discussion or conversation
    content analysis
  59. 1) the majority of children ___ to disclose their abuse when they are young
    2)reported cases of CSA are just a ___ ____
    fail; small portion
  60. in terms with why people often dont report CSA, data suggests that memory for emotional, even traumatic, victimization experiences can be _____ well even decades after the events occurred
  61. in mock trials, children are generally views as ____ credible than adult eyewitnesses
  62. in CSA cases, younger victims are viewed as ____ credible than adolescents or adults, because jurors suspect that they lack sexual knowledge to ____ an allegation
    more; fabricate
  63. guarantees defendants the right to confront their accusers. It is based on the assumption that the witness will find it more difficult to lie in the presence of the defendant. this thing is a part of the 6th amendment
    confrontation clause
  64. the use of CCTV generally promoted more ____ testimony by children, but they were viewed as ____ believable than children who testified in court
    accurate; less
  65. when retrieving memories over long periods, one must remember that ____ forgetting will occur. this is when....
    natural; tends to occur when people do not think about events that happened years earlier
  66. another way that memories are sometimes difficult to summon, is because of ____ memories
    repressed. they are events that were so traumatizing that individuals bury them deeply in their unconscious mind through emotionally motivated forgetting.
  67. victims of abuse or other traumas are thought to escape the full impact of an experience by psychologically detaching themselves from it, it is particularly strong in children
  68. most of the report of repressed and recovered memories involve claims of ___
  69. given the right set of circumstances, people can create ___ memories that never happened
  70. the act of imaging may make an event seem more familiar, people who do this without thinking about whether the constructions are real can have ____ confusion
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chapter 5 forensic psychology
2014-02-10 01:17:17

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