Biology Ch. 1 (Campbell's 9th edition)

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Biology Ch. 1 (Campbell's 9th edition)
2014-02-09 20:24:03
Biology Notes
Chapter 1 Biology notes
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  1. An organism's adaptations to its environment is known as?
  2. The scientific study of life is known as?
  3. New properties that merge at each step/properties that are not present at the preceding level are known as?
    Emergent Properties
  4. Reducing complex systems into smaller components, making it more manageable to study, is a powerful strategy used in biology known as?
  5. In 1953, these two scientists studied the molecular structure of DNA extracted from cells?
    James Watson and Francis Crick
  6. Biologists balance reductionist strategy with the larger-scale, ________ objective of understanding _________ properties- how parts of cells, organisms, and higher levels of order, like ecosystems, work with each other. This approach, developed over the last 50 years, is known as?
    • -holistic, -emergent,
    • Systems Biology
  7. A combination of components that function together is called a?
    • System
    • examples could be: leaf cell, frog, ant colony, desert ecosystem.
  8. A scientific approach that attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts is referred to as?
    Systems Biology
  9. This consists of all life on Earth and places where life exists- most regions of land, most bodies of water, the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers, and even sediments below the ocean floor and rocks below the Earth's surface is called the?
  10. Forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceanic coral reefs are examples of __________?
  11. This consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as: soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light?
  12. All of the Earth's ecosystems combined make up the __________?
  13. The entire array of organisms that inhabit a particular ecosystem is referred to as?
  14. Plants, animals, and microorganisms, which are living forms, such as bacteria, are forms of life called?
  15. All of the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area is called a?
  16. Individual living things are called?
  17. Body part that carries out a particular function in the body is?
  18. Organs are made up of several?
  19. Tissues are made up of?
  20. Life's fundamental unit of structure and function is called?
  21. Organisms such as amoebas and most bacteria are __________ organisms?
    Single Cell
  22. The _______ has the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life.
  23. Activities of ________ are all based on the activities of __________.
    • organisms
    • cells
  24. All cells share certain ________. Every cell is enclosed by a __________ that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings.
    • characteristics
    • membrane
  25. Every cell uses _____ as its genetic information.
  26. The cells of two groups of microorganisms, called bacteria and archaea are known as?
  27. All lifeforms, not including bacteria and archaea, such as plants and animals, are composed of these types of cells?
    Eukaryotic Cell
  28. A cell that is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles is?
    Eukaryotic Cell- most generally, the largest organelle is the nucleus, which contains the cell's DNA.
  29. ____ cells are much simpler and generally smaller than ________cells.
    • Prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  30. In ________ cells, DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus.
  31. _________ cells lack other kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles that characterize _______ cells.
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic
  32. DNA is the substance of _______, the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring.
  33. Chromosomes have almost all of a cell's genetic material known as?
    DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid
  34. The entire process, by which the information in a gene directs the production of a cellular product is?
    Gene Expression
  35. Differences between organisms reflect differences between their _________ sequences rather that between _________.
    • nucleotide
    • genetic codes
  36. The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its?
  37. The study of whole sets of genes, rather than a single gene at a time, comparing genomes between species is an approach referred to as?
  38. Three important research developments that have made the genomic approach possible are?
    • High-througput technology-tools that analyze biological materials
    • Bioinformatics- the use of computational tools
    • Formation of interdisciplinary research teams such as, computer science, mathematicians, engineers, chemists, physicists, and biologists
  39. Like most of the cell's chemical processes, those that either decompose or store sugar are accelerated, or catalyzed, by proteins called?
  40. Accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process is?
    Negative Feedback: most common form of regulation in living systems
  41. The cell's breakdown of sugar generates chemical energy in the form of a substance called?
  42. Feedback in which the end process speeds up the production is known as?
    Positive feedback: ex. blood clotting
  43. The idea that the organisms living on Earth today are the modified descendants of common ancestors is?
  44. The three domains of life are?
    Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
  45. The organisms making up two of three domains (domain Bacteria and domain Archaea) are all ________.
  46. Most prokaryotes are _________-celled and _______.
    • Single
    • Microscopic
  47. All the eukaryotes are grouped in domain ________.
  48. Kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are grouped in domain __________.
  49. The three kingdoms of Eukarya are distinguished partly by their modes of __________.
  50. Single-celled eukaryotes are called?