Card Set Information
Mole Gene 1
The study of essential macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins
The first living systems were based on _____.
RNA is _____ and _____ than DNA.
More reactive; less stable
Did LUCA have the same genetic code that we use today?
LUCA had _____ as genetic material.
Eukaryotes are more closely related to _____.
Natural selection and evolution
Natural selection depends on...
Population variation, competition
Mechanism if evolutionary change when traits are passed from parents to offspring; new species evolve from pre-existing species.
Mechanism of evolution when traits are passed between species.
Horizontal gene transfer
Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer...
Conjugation, transformation, transduction
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a product of...
Horizontal gene transfer
Provides a reasonable explanation for observations.
Provides and explanation for a large number of experiments.
Deals with transmission of traits from one generation to another.
Mendel proposed the...
Particulate mechanism of inheritance
Equal and independent segregation of alleles occurs during formation of gamete cells
Law of segregation
Different genes assort into gametes independently of each other.
Law of independent assortment
When heterozygotes look different from either homozygous, they are expressing _____.
When both genes are fully expressed in a heterozygote, they are expressing ____.
When two genes are located on the same chromosome, they are ____.
Sister chromatids are only present after.....
S phase of mitosis
Mitosis separates _____, therefore....
Sister chromatids; chromosome number is the same at the end
Meiosis I separates _____, and meiosis II separates _____, therefore...
Homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; chromosome number is halved.
Physical location of a gene on a chromosome.
_________ during meiosis I leads to the independent assortment of alleles found on different chromosomes.
Random alignment of chromosome pairs
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Drosophila; sex-linked eye color proved genes were on chromosomes
Demonstrated that rare genetic abnormalities were linked to abnormal chromosomes (nondisjunction)
If two genes are linked, F2 generation of a test cross will...
Produce only two parental phenotypes
Bateson and Punnet
Unexpected F2 with recombinant types having greatly decreased numbers (linked genes)
Recombinants are a result of ______.
Crossing over occurs between _____ at _____.
Sister chromatids; chiasmata
Streptococcus pneumoniae; mice; bacterial transformations
Avery, McCloud, McCarty
Used purification methods to reveal that DNA is the genetic material; with DNase, no transformation
Hershey and Chase
T2 phage infects E. coli; labeled DNA and protein and DNA was inserted into the bacteria to infect
Beadle and Tatum
Neurospora crassa; irradiated then looked for auxotrophs
Mutants that require extra nutrients that wouldn't normally be required in the wild types
Proposed the central dogma
Synthesis of RNA by reading one strand of the double stranded DNA
Small RNA molecules with amino acids attached; Crick's adaptor molecule
The process of producing a protein product from an mRNA molecule
The phosphate of a nucleotide is located ____.
The base of a nucleotide is located ____.
Nucleosides lack a ____.
Bases are linked to sugars by _____.
Nucleotides are linked together to form nucleic acids by _____.
The sugar a phosphate parts of DNA molecule.
The backbone is hydro___.
A pairs with T and G pairs with C