MolGene 1.txt

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MolGene 1.txt
2014-02-09 22:24:44
Molecular Genetics

Mole Gene 1
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  1. The study of essential macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins
    Molecular biology
  2. The first living systems were based on _____.
  3. RNA is _____ and _____ than DNA.
    More reactive; less stable
  4. Did LUCA have the same genetic code that we use today?
  5. LUCA had _____ as genetic material.
  6. Eukaryotes are more closely related to _____.
  7. Charles Darwin
    Natural selection and evolution
  8. Natural selection depends on...
    Population variation, competition
  9. Mechanism if evolutionary change when traits are passed from parents to offspring; new species evolve from pre-existing species.
    Vertical descent
  10. Mechanism of evolution when traits are passed between species.
    Horizontal gene transfer
  11. Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer...
    Conjugation, transformation, transduction
  12. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a product of...
    Horizontal gene transfer
  13. Provides a reasonable explanation for observations.
  14. Provides and explanation for a large number of experiments.
    Scientific theory
  15. Deals with transmission of traits from one generation to another.
    Transmission genetics
  16. Mendel proposed the...
    Particulate mechanism of inheritance
  17. Equal and independent segregation of alleles occurs during formation of gamete cells
    Law of segregation
  18. Different genes assort into gametes independently of each other.
    Law of independent assortment
  19. When heterozygotes look different from either homozygous, they are expressing _____.
    Incomplete dominance
  20. When both genes are fully expressed in a heterozygote, they are expressing ____.
  21. When two genes are located on the same chromosome, they are ____.
  22. Sister chromatids are only present after.....
    S phase of mitosis
  23. Mitosis separates _____, therefore....
    Sister chromatids; chromosome number is the same at the end
  24. Meiosis I separates _____, and meiosis II separates _____, therefore...
    Homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; chromosome number is halved.
  25. Physical location of a gene on a chromosome.
  26. _________ during meiosis I leads to the independent assortment of alleles found on different chromosomes.
    Random alignment of chromosome pairs
  27. Walter sutton
    Chromosomal theory of inheritance
  28. Thomas Hunt Morgan
    Drosophila; sex-linked eye color proved genes were on chromosomes
  29. Bridges
    Demonstrated that rare genetic abnormalities were linked to abnormal chromosomes (nondisjunction)
  30. If two genes are linked, F2 generation of a test cross will...
    Produce only two parental phenotypes
  31. Bateson and Punnet
    Unexpected F2 with recombinant types having greatly decreased numbers (linked genes)
  32. Recombinants are a result of ______.
    Crossing over
  33. Crossing over occurs between _____ at _____.
    Sister chromatids; chiasmata
  34. Fredrick Griffith
    Streptococcus pneumoniae; mice; bacterial transformations
  35. Avery, McCloud, McCarty
    Used purification methods to reveal that DNA is the genetic material; with DNase, no transformation
  36. Hershey and Chase
    T2 phage infects E. coli; labeled DNA and protein and DNA was inserted into the bacteria to infect
  37. Beadle and Tatum
    Neurospora crassa; irradiated then looked for auxotrophs
  38. Mutants that require extra nutrients that wouldn't normally be required in the wild types
  39. Crick
    Proposed the central dogma
  40. Synthesis of RNA by reading one strand of the double stranded DNA
  41. Small RNA molecules with amino acids attached; Crick's adaptor molecule
  42. The process of producing a protein product from an mRNA molecule
  43. The phosphate of a nucleotide is located ____.
  44. The base of a nucleotide is located ____.
  45. Nucleosides lack a ____.
  46. Bases are linked to sugars by _____.
    Glycosidic bonds
  47. Nucleotides are linked together to form nucleic acids by _____.
    Phosphodiester bonds
  48. The sugar a phosphate parts of DNA molecule.
  49. The backbone is hydro___.
  50. Chargaff
    A pairs with T and G pairs with C