Basic Principles of Drug Action and Drug Interactions

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Basic Principles of Drug Action and Drug Interactions
2014-02-10 00:06:43
`Pharmacology Chapter

Chapter 2
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  1. the process by which a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to the circulating fluids of the body (i.e., blood and lymph) for distribution; the rate at which this occurs depends on the route of administration, the blood flow through the tissue where the drug is administered, and the solubility of the drug
  2. -refers to the ways in which drugs are transported by the circulating body fluids to the sites of action (receptors), metabolism, and excretion.
  3. Organs with the most extensive blood supply that receive the distributing drug most rappidly
    heart, liver, kidneys, and brain
  4. Areas with less blood supply that receive the drugs more slowly
    muscle, skin, and fat
  5. When a drug is circulating in the blood, a                 may be drawn to determine the amount of the drug present.
    Blood Sample
  6. determines the amount of drug present
    blood level
  7. also call biotransformation is the process by which the body inactivates drugs.
  8. It is important for certain drugs (e.g,                   and                    ) to be measured to ensure that the drug blood level is within the therapeutic range.
    anticonvulsants and antibiotics
  9. The enzyme systems of the                are the primary site for metabolism of drugs.
  10. Drugs such as                  ,                  , and                   metabolize certain drugs to a minor extent.
    WBC's, GI tract and Lungs
  11. Elimination of drug metabolites and , in some cases, the active drug itself from the body is called
  12. The two primary routes of excretion are through the                                 and through the                                .
    GI tract to the feces, and Renal tubules into the urine
  13. Other routes of excretion include evaporation through the                  , exhalation from the                   and secretion into                 and                     .
    skin, lungs, saliva, and breastmilk
  14. the amount of time required for 50% of the drug to be eliminated from the body.
  15. In patient's who have impaired hepatic or renal function, the half-life may become considerably                 because of their reduced ability to metabolize or excrete the drug
  16. this usually occurs when a drug enters a patient and is absorbed and distributed (i.e., expected response)
    desired action
  17. "any noxious, unintended, and undesired effect of a drug, which occurs at doses in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy"
    adverse drug reaction
  18. most commonly seen Adverse drug reactions
    rash, nausea, itching, thrombocytopenia, and diarheaa
  19. the classes of medicine that account for the largest number of Adverse Drug reactions
    antibiotics, cardiovascular medicine, cancer chemo agents, and analgesics/ anti-inflammatory agents
  20. this occurs when something unusual or abnormal happens when a drug is first administered.
    idiosyncratic reaction (over response)
  21. the ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous
  22. a drug that induces birth defects
  23. Most organ systems are formed during what trimester of pregnancy
  24. occurs when a person begins to require a higher dosage to produce the same effects that  lower dosage once provided
  25. also known as addiction or habituation, occurs when a person is unable to control the ingestion of drugs
    drug dependence
  26. Drug dependence that occurs when a person develops withdrawal symptoms for a certain period
    Physical dependence
  27. Drug dependence in which the patient is emotionally attached to the drug
    Psychological dependence
  28. If a patient has a mild reaction, it is understood as a warning NOT to take the medication again.  The patient could have an                             reaction at the next exposure to the drug
  29.                            is said to occur when the action of on drug is altered by the action of another drug.
    Drug Interaction
  30. this happens when two drugs with similar actions are taken for a doubled effect
    Additive Effect
  31. when the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the effect of each drug given alone
    Synergistic Effect
  32. when one drug interferes with the action of another
    Antagonistic Effect
  33. the displacement of the first drug by a second drug increases the activity of the first drug
    Displacement Effect
  34. when the first drug inhibits the metabolism or excretion of the second drug, causing increased activity of the second drug.
  35. when the first drug is chemically incompatible with the second drug, causing deterioration when both drugs are mixed in the same syringe or solution; incompatible drugs should not be mixed together or administered together at the same site; signs of incompatibility are haziness, a precipitate, or a change in color of the solution when the drugs are mixed.
  36. Via the gastrointestinal tract by oral, rectal, or nasogastric routes
  37. Bypasses the GI tract by using subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous injection
  38. Absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes
    * inhalation, sublingual, or topical
  39. What is the correct order in which drugs pass through the body?
    • ADME
    • 1.Absorption- depends on route of administration
    • 2.Distribution- depends on circulation to be transported throughout the body
    • 3.Metabolism- depends on enzyme systems
    • 4.Excretion- depends on GI tract and kidneys
  40. Which method of drug administration is absorbed fastest?
  41. Concentration of a drug is sufficient to start a pharmacologic response
    Onset of action
  42. a drug reaches the highest concentration
    Peak action
  43. How long the drug has a pharmacologic effect
    duration of action
  44. determines the amount of drug present
    Drug level
  45. severe itching
  46. life threatening reaction that causes respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse
    anaphylactic reaction
  47. the portion of the drug that is pharmacologically active
    unbound drug
  48. Process of converting oral drug, can be influenced by food and water in the stomach