Bones and Skeletal Tissues

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Bones and Skeletal Tissues
2014-02-10 00:59:06
bones skeletal tissues

bones and skeletal tissue A&P I
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  1. true organs
    multiple different tissue types
  2. the skeletal system includes…
    • bones
    • cartilage 
    • ligaments 
    • other connective tissue
  3. what is the main purpose of connective tissues?
    to stabilize and interconnect
  4. what tissue type are bones?
    mainly connective
  5. what are the 6 primary functions of the skeletal system?
    • 1. support
    • 2. storage of minerals and lipids 
    • 3. blood cell production 
    • 4. protection 
    • 5. hormone production 
    • 6. leverage
  6. what type of tissue makes up yellow bone marrow?
  7. 3 major types of cartilage
    • 1. hyaline
    • 2. elastic 
    • 3. fibrocartilage
  8. which type of cartilage has stiff but flexible support?
  9. which type of cartilage resists compression, prevents bone to bone contact, and limits movement?
  10. cartilage of the ear
  11. cartilage in nose
  12. articular cartilage of a joint
  13. cartilage in intervertebral disc
  14. pubic symphysis
  15. meniscus
  16. to talk about bones we must look at their:
    • 1. shape
    • 2. feature surface markings 
    • 3. internal structure
  17. 6 bone shape categories
    • 1. sutural 
    • 2. sesamoid 
    • 3. irregular 
    • 4. short 
    • 5. flat 
    • 6. long
  18. which type of bone is small, flat, irregularly shaped, between flat bones of the skull, vary between individual in number and shape?
  19. sutural bones are basically…
    small bone chips
  20. which bones are small, flat, develop inside of the tendons, are near joints, and vary in number and location?
  21. what is the one sesamoid bone pair that does not vary in shape and location from person to person?
  22. which bones are complex in shape, short, flat, notched/ rigid?
  23. vertebrae, pelvic bones, some skull bones
  24. which bones are small and boxy?
  25. where can you find short bones?
    carpals and tarsals
  26. which bones have thin, parallel surfaces, serve as protection for underlying soft tissues, provide surface for muscle attachment?
  27. where can you find flat bones?
    skull, sternum, ribs, scapulae
  28. which bones are long, slender, in appendages?
  29. where can you find long bones?
    femur, humerus, metacarpals/tarsals, radius, etc.
  30. which bone shape includes the larges bone of the body?
  31. what are some characteristic internal and external features of bone markings?
    • elevations
    • projections 
    • depressions 
    • grooves
    • tunnels 
    • etc.
  32. tuberosity
    large rounded projection; may be roughened
  33. crest
    narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
  34. trochanter
    very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process
  35. line
    narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
  36. tubercle
    small rounded projection or process
  37. epicondyle
    raised area on or above a condyle
  38. spine
    sharp, slender, often pointed projection
  39. process
    any bony prominence
  40. head
    bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
  41. facet
    smooth, nearly flat articular surface
  42. condyle
    rounded articular projection
  43. ramus
    armlike bar of bone
  44. groove
  45. fissure
    narrow, slitlike opening
  46. foramen
    round or oval opening through a bone
  47. notch
    indentation at the edge of a structure
  48. meatus
    canal-like passageway
  49. sinus
    cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
  50. fossa
    shallow, basin like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
  51. what are the 2 types of bone structure?
    • compact 
    • spongy
  52. which type of bone structure is dense, relatively solid, and forms a sturdy, protective layer surrounding a medullary cavity (marrow cavity)?
  53. which type of bone structure is cancellous/trabecular, open network of struts and plates, thin covering of compact or cortical bone?
  54. true or false. Spongy bone is never exposed to the surface.
  55. what are the 5 typical structures of a long bone?
    • 1. diaphysis
    • 2. epiphyses 
    • 3. metaphyses 
    • 4. medullary cavity
    • 5. periosteum
  56. diaphysis
    the long shaft in the long bone
  57. epiphyses
    the head at the end of a long bone
  58. metaphyses
    the neck; where the epiphyses attaches to the diaphysis in a long bone
  59. endosteum
    membrane inside the medullary cavity of a long bone
  60. periosteum
    • double layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone
    • except in joints
  61. supporting connective tissue contains...
    • specialized cells 
    • extracellular protein fibers 
    • ground substance
  62. bone matrix contains ________ salts
  63. osteoid
    uncalcified bone matrix
  64. osteocytes
    bone cells
  65. lacunae
    small open space in the matrix
  66. canaliculi
    small holes that allow for the exchange of materials
  67. how many osteocytes are inside of a lacunae?
    only 1
  68. true or false. the matrix in the spongy bone is the same as the matrix in the compact bone.
  69. in spongy bone, about how much of the mass do the cells account?
  70. what kind of fibers provide framework in spongy cells?
  71. what is unique about spongy bone?
    it can repair itself
  72. what are the four types of bone cells?
    • 1. osteocytes 
    • 2. osteoblasts 
    • 3. osteoprogenitor cells
    • 4. osteoclasts
  73. which type of bone cells are mature, occupy lacuna surrounded by lamellae, cannot divide, and are canaliculi?
  74. lamella
    layers of calcified matrix
  75. what are the 2 major functions of osteocytes?
    • 1. maintain protein and mineral content of matrix 
    • 2. participate in repair of damaged bone
  76. which type of bone cells produces asteroids, and elevates Ca phosphate levels above solubility limit?
  77. osteoblasts calcify themselves into _________.
  78. osteocytes are __________ surrounded by _______.
    osteoblasts, bone
  79. which type of bone cells are squamous stem cells, daughter cells differentiate into osteoblasts, important in fracture repair, and inner layer of periosteum and endosteum
    osteoprogenitor cells
  80. which type of bone cells remove and recycle bone matrix, are giant cells with 50+ nuclei, are derived from stem cells that produce monocytes
  81. osteoblasts are ____________ bone mass while osteoclasts are ___________ bone mass
    building, breaking
  82. osteogenic cell
    • bone cell
    • stem cell
  83. osteoblast
    • bone cell
    • matrix-synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth
  84. osteocyte
    • bone cell
    • mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the mineralized bone matrix
  85. osteoclast
    • bone cell
    • bone-resorbing cell