administration refers to application of medications to the skin or mucous membranes for absorption
Methods of Percutaneous administration include:
3. instillation of solution onto the mucous membranes of mouth, eye, ear, nose, or vagina
Primary advantage of using percutaneous route:
localized to the one spot
Topical preparations can be used to:
1. cleanse and debride a wound
2. Rehydrate the skin
3. Reduce inflammation
4. Relieve localized signs and symptoms, such as itching and rash
5. Provide a protective barrier
6. Reduce a thickening of the skin, such as that involved with callus formation
semisolid emulsions containing medicinal agents for external application; generally nongreasy and can be removed with water; used as moisturizing agent.
usually aqueous preparations that contain suspended materials; commonly used as soothing agents to protect the skin and relieve rashes and itching.
semisolid preparations of medicinal substances in an oily bas such as lanolin or petrolatum; can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes and generally cannot be removed easily with water; has prolonged contact with the skin
provides controlled release of a prescribed medication through a semipermeable membrane for several hours to 3 weeks when applied to intact skin
Transdermal Disk or patch
Examples of Transdermal patches
B. Clonidine ( for HBP)
How long are nitroglycerin patches worn
10-14 hours followed by a drug-free period of 10-12 hours
can take up to 12 hours after application to be effective in the management of pain.
What are finely ground particles of medication contained in a talc base
tablets are designed to be placed under the tongue for dissolution and absorption through the vast network of blood vessels in this area.
tablets are designed to be held in the buccal cavity (between the cheek and molar teeth) for absorption from the blood vessels of the cheek.
Medications for use in the eye are labeled
Overuse of nose drops can cause a " " which causes the symptoms to become worse
are sprayed into the throat by a nebulizer
Devices known as or have been designed for patients who cannot coordinate the release of the medication with inhalation