Card Set Information

2014-02-10 11:52:39
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  1. _______________: decrease in thrombocytes, also known as platelets
  2. __________: the sifting out of white cells; selective removal of leukocytes from with drawn blood that can be transfused.
  3. ______: enlargement of the spleen
  4. _________: decrease in white blood cells
  5. ______________: weight loss usually associated with a conscious decision to decrease food intake
  6. ________: causing physical defects in the development embryo; teratogenous-developed from fetal remains
  7. _______: decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood; neutrophils are granular leukocytes
  8. _________; being poisonous; degree of being poisonous or harmful
  9. ____________; a chemical solvent from coal tar; can be used as an insecticide
  10. ____________= decrease in function of blood forming tissues
    Bone marrow depression
  11. _____________ = rod shaped structures, present in the cytoplasm of myeloblast, myelocytes, and monoblast, found in leukemia
    Auer rods
  12. _________: means the lowest point.  Often used to reference blood counts, particularly WBC's & Platelets

    • Nadir time can occur within 10-14 days following high dose of chemotherapy.
    • Suppression of blood cells production depends on the drugs administered
  13. __________: Itching that may be caused by inflammation
  14. ___________: A hemorrhagic spot in the skin; looks round or irregular, blue or purplish.
  15. Drug: Predinosone
    Type: __________
    Effect: _______

    ALL, CLL

    GI ulcers, pancreatitis
  16. Drug: Chlorambucil
    Type: ____________
    Disease: __________
    Effect: ______________
    • Alkylating
    • CLL
    • Bone marrow, depression
  17. Drug: Doxorubcin
    Type: ______________
    Disease: __________________
    • anti-tumor; anthracycline
    • ALL; CLL
    • Bone marrow depression; toxicity to the heart; and GI
  18. Drug: Vinicristine
    • plant
    • ALL
    • Anorexia toxicities; myelosupression, flu-like symptoms
  19. Drug: Interferon
    Type: ____________
    Disease: __________
    • Immunotherapeutic
    • CML
    • Anorexia; weight loss
  20. Drug: Hydrouria
    • Antimetabolite
    • ALL
    • N/V; oral ulcers
  21. The first documented case of leukemia was by _____________
    Alfred Velpeau
  22. When leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, there is an impairment of the body's normal production of adequate supplies of _________
    red blood cells
  23. Weisses blut means:
    White blood
  24. List the normal values of

    White Blood Cells
    3.90 - 10.80 thousand/mm
  25. List the normal values of

    Red Blood Cells
    3.90 - 5.40 million/mm
  26. What is the normal value for

    150-424 thousand/mm
  27. List the differential white blood cells
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophiils
    • Neutrophils
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
    • Platelets
  28. Which of the leukemias is found mostly in children?
    ALL (acute lymphocytic leukemia)
  29. Which of the leukemias is not associated with previous irradiation exposure?
    CLL (Chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
  30. The most important diagnostic factor for detecting CML is
    Philadelphia chromosome
  31. Notes:
    TBI may be used in the management of leukemia by having the patient positioned sitting in a fetal position at an extended distance  from the treatment machine or lying supine or standing. Small children may be treated laying supine as there bodies are small enough to be contained in the collimator area opening.
    Low dose TBI can be 10cGy/day for a total of 4.5GY. Special care has to be taken to protect the lungs and lens by varying position or using shields
  32. Notes:          Helmet
    This technique is a modification of the whole brain fields. The lower border should be to cervical spine #2 to make sure the 4th ventricle has proper coverage.
    lateral fields are appropriate with daily doses of about 1.5Gy to a total of 25-35Gy
  33. Notes: CNS
    The total CNS is treated with 2 lateral brain fields as per helmet technique and carefully matching a field covering the entire spine from cervical spine #2-3 junction to sacral bone #2 to give a margin on the cauda equine
    Daily dose is about 1.5Gy to total 35Gy to each field
  34. Note: Bone Marrow Transplant
    The infusion of bane marrow into a recipient. Donors must be compatible.
    There are 3 types:
    1. Autologous transplant: self
    2. syngenic transplant: donor is identical twin
    3. Allogenic: donor is compatible but unrelated
  35. Why is a gap calculated when treating CNS?
    To avoid hot spots where 2 fields may overlap
  36. Define a feathering technique & when it is used in a radiation set up
    Feathering requires the relocation of match points or gaps during treatment of adjacent fields. Movement of match points is suggested to occur every 3-5 treamtents
  37. Factors that lead to failure in bone marrow transplants includes:
    • recurrent disease
    • Autologous donors
    • Graft-verses-host disease
  38. Patients treated with methotrexate develop a rapid onset of bone marrow depression, with nadir occurring in a range of ______ days
    10 to 14 days
  39. Integumentary system does not include
    blood cells
  40. Alopecia, Dermatitis & Hyperpigmetation are considered __________ side effects form chemotherapy drugs seen in leukemia patients
  41. The field design for treating a spleen clinically, you would need to allow how much margin around the organ
  42. Patients with ____ always exhibit lymphocytosis
  43. Which leukemia has the worst prognosis?
  44. When treating a TBI, what might be used during the first treatment to check midline doses and are placed at specific areas such as the patients ankles, knees, and thighs
  45. In a helmet field, it is very important to cover the meninges and C2. Which of the following is not one of the layers of the meniges?
    Subarachnoid mater
  46. Which of the leukemias appear to have a hereditary component?
  47. For a definitive diagnosis for ALL, which of the following is needed?
    Bone Marrow aspiration biopsy
  48. The spleen is located in the ___
  49. In which cell cycle may the undifferentiated cells have a decreased proportion of blast cells compared with normal bone marrow blast cells in regards to the pathology of AML?