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_______________: decrease in thrombocytes, also known as platelets
__________: the sifting out of white cells; selective removal of leukocytes from with drawn blood that can be transfused.
______: enlargement of the spleen
_________: decrease in white blood cells
______________: weight loss usually associated with a conscious decision to decrease food intake
________: causing physical defects in the development embryo; teratogenous-developed from fetal remains
_______: decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood; neutrophils are granular leukocytes
_________; being poisonous; degree of being poisonous or harmful
____________; a chemical solvent from coal tar; can be used as an insecticide
____________= decrease in function of blood forming tissues
Bone marrow depression
_____________ = rod shaped structures, present in the cytoplasm of myeloblast, myelocytes, and monoblast, found in leukemia
_________: means the lowest point. Often used to reference blood counts, particularly WBC's & Platelets
- Nadir time can occur within 10-14 days following high dose of chemotherapy.
- Suppression of blood cells production depends on the drugs administered
__________: Itching that may be caused by inflammation
___________: A hemorrhagic spot in the skin; looks round or irregular, blue or purplish.
GI ulcers, pancreatitis
- Bone marrow, depression
- anti-tumor; anthracycline
- ALL; CLL
- Bone marrow depression; toxicity to the heart; and GI
- Anorexia toxicities; myelosupression, flu-like symptoms
- Anorexia; weight loss
- N/V; oral ulcers
The first documented case of leukemia was by _____________
When leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, there is an impairment of the body's normal production of adequate supplies of _________
red blood cells
Weisses blut means:
List the normal values of
White Blood Cells
3.90 - 10.80 thousand/mm
List the normal values of
Red Blood Cells
3.90 - 5.40 million/mm
What is the normal value for
List the differential white blood cells
Which of the leukemias is found mostly in children?
ALL (acute lymphocytic leukemia)
Which of the leukemias is not associated with previous irradiation exposure?
CLL (Chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
The most important diagnostic factor for detecting CML is
TBI may be used in the management of leukemia by having the patient positioned sitting in a fetal position at an extended distance from the treatment machine or lying supine or standing. Small children may be treated laying supine as there bodies are small enough to be contained in the collimator area opening.
Low dose TBI can be 10cGy/day for a total of 4.5GY. Special care has to be taken to protect the lungs and lens by varying position or using shields
This technique is a modification of the whole brain fields. The lower border should be to cervical spine #2 to make sure the 4th ventricle has proper coverage.
lateral fields are appropriate with daily doses of about 1.5Gy to a total of 25-35Gy
The total CNS is treated with 2 lateral brain fields as per helmet technique and carefully matching a field covering the entire spine from cervical spine #2-3 junction to sacral bone #2 to give a margin on the cauda equine
Daily dose is about 1.5Gy to total 35Gy to each field
Note: Bone Marrow Transplant
The infusion of bane marrow into a recipient. Donors must be compatible.
There are 3 types:
1. Autologous transplant: self
2. syngenic transplant: donor is identical twin
3. Allogenic: donor is compatible but unrelated
Why is a gap calculated when treating CNS?
To avoid hot spots where 2 fields may overlap
Define a feathering technique & when it is used in a radiation set up
Feathering requires the relocation of match points or gaps during treatment of adjacent fields. Movement of match points is suggested to occur every 3-5 treamtents
Factors that lead to failure in bone marrow transplants includes:
- recurrent disease
- Autologous donors
- Graft-verses-host disease
Patients treated with methotrexate develop a rapid onset of bone marrow depression, with nadir occurring in a range of ______ days
10 to 14 days
Integumentary system does not include
Alopecia, Dermatitis & Hyperpigmetation are considered __________ side effects form chemotherapy drugs seen in leukemia patients
The field design for treating a spleen clinically, you would need to allow how much margin around the organ
Patients with ____ always exhibit lymphocytosis
Which leukemia has the worst prognosis?
When treating a TBI, what might be used during the first treatment to check midline doses and are placed at specific areas such as the patients ankles, knees, and thighs
In a helmet field, it is very important to cover the meninges and C2. Which of the following is not one of the layers of the meniges?
Which of the leukemias appear to have a hereditary component?
For a definitive diagnosis for ALL, which of the following is needed?
Bone Marrow aspiration biopsy
The spleen is located in the ___
In which cell cycle may the undifferentiated cells have a decreased proportion of blast cells compared with normal bone marrow blast cells in regards to the pathology of AML?