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List the components and major functions of the lymphatic system.
- Lymphatic vessels and nodes and lymphatic organs such as tonsils, spleen, bone marrow and thymus.
- Responsible for immune defenses and circulation of lymph fluid.
- Filtration of foreign particles and production of lymphocytes
List the function of the Red Blood Cell
transport oxygen & carbon dioxide
List the function of the White blood cells
they are critical to immunity as neutrophils & monocytes carry out phagocytosis
What is the function of Lymphocytes?
Heparin is produced by ___________ and _________ help detoxify
____________ initate blood clotting and hemostasis
What are the 2 types of lymphocytes that participate in adaptive immune response?
T and B lymphocytes
- B cells secrete antibodies
- T cells kill cells bearing specific antigens
What are the smallest vessels of the lymphatic system, which are located in the spaces between cells?
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form the lymphatic vessels
Explain the flow of lymph
The lymph vessels lead to collecting ducts that unite with the veins in the thorax. After leaving lymph nodes, the lymph vessels merge to form larger lymphatic trunks. The truck drains the lymph from the large regions of the body. The trunks join one of 2 collecting ducts known as the thoracic or right lymph duct
Which lymphatic vessels empty into the cisternia chili, and which duct receives the lymph from the cisternia chili?
The thoracic duct receives lymph from the cistern chili and the right lymphatic duct empties into the cisterna
What happens to foreign substances in lymph that enters a lymph node?
They are removed and filtered by phagocytes
Lymph flows through a node in one direction entering __________ lymphatic vessels and flowing out by way of __________ lymphatic vessels
hemopoiesis, red blood cells & platelet destruction and serves as a reservoir for blood are all functions of the _______
If a spleen is removed, which other organs take over some of the functions of the spleen?
Without a spleen some of the other blood forming tissues can take over
How do lymphatic vessels differ in structure from veins?
Lymphatic vessels have the capacity for repair & regeneration
The ______ traps immature stem cells and pre-processes then so that they can become sensitized and capable of maturing into types of lymphocytes essential to developing immunity. This happens in fetal life & typically reaches its maximum performance by puberty
The largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body is the ___________
The __________ is not considered a tonsil
The _______ atrophies after puberty
B-cells mature in the ____
The lyphatic system consist of
- organs & nodes
Lymph nodes are what length?
1 to 25mm
The thymus gland functions in immunity by producing ______
-originates in lymph nodes or extranodal tissue
-most likely to spread randomly
-commonly arising in GI tract
The thoracic duct is the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system and begins in the _____________
75% of all Hodgkin disease will have
The most common presenting system for Hodgkin disease is _________
painless cervical node enlargements
A large binucleate or polynucleate cell present for a diagnosis of Hodgkin is referred to as ___________
Classification for staging of lymphomas is traditionally
Staging of lymphoma may also include the following letters denoting organs
- S- SPEEN
- H- LIVER
- L- LUNG
- M- MARROW
- P- PLEURA
- O- OSSEOUS
- D- SKIN
true or flase
IrrADIATION IS THE PRIMARY TREATMENT MODALITY FOR THE MAJORITY OF PATIENTS WITH EARLY STAGES OF HODGKINS DISEASE
- true & false.
- this is debatable today.
- traditionally rt has been the primary tx for early stage Hodgkin disease.
- Due to the realization of late effects, tx schemes are being reconsidered putting chemotherapy as the primary and radiation as an adjunct to involve fields
A 23 year old male patient has an enlarged cervical lymph node. Diagnostic work up reveals positive mediastinal & axillary nodes as well.
Based on this information the patient would be
Staging for Hodgkin disease also includes an A-B grouping. Which symptom is not one of the classical B symptoms
In Hodgkin disease, involvement of several nodal regions of both sides of the diaphragm accompanied by localized involvement of an extralymphatic site is
In the treatment fields of Waldeyer ring for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the fields delineation closely resembles that of carcinoma of the _______________
Which lymph node groups are treated in mantle field?
- mediastinal & Axillary Lymph Nodes
Common side effects of radiation therapy to the abdomen include
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) differ in a couple of ways from Hodkins (HD) one is that occurs _______________
primarly in older people
__________ is most likely to spread randomly, rather than orderly as HD doses
A young woman has swelling in her lower neck for suspected HD. A chest x-ray also revealed mediastinal adenopathy. She has not experienced any fever, night sweats or weight loss. Staging would likely be ________
THe most favorable of the four subtypes of Hodgkin disease is ___________
NHL may arise in __________, _____ & _________
- lymph nodes
- Gastrointestinal tract
- Weldeyer ring
In NHL, lymphocytes pathologically arrange themselves in patterns called ______ & _____
Follicular & Nodular
The optimal dose in a mantle field is ___ to ___ cGy
3500 to 4400
Which nodes are included in the inverted Y field?
- Common iliac
radiation carditis is a chronic side effect after irradiation to the mantle field. THis is inflammation of the _____
Transient dysphagia is an acute side effect after irradiation for Hodgkin. Dysphagia is _________________
When extremely large fields are treated (as in mantles & para-aortics) above & below the diaphragm, an appropriate separation must be left between the fields. The separation is called the _______