Lymphoma

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sandy2696
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261244
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Lymphoma
Updated:
2014-02-10 13:20:11
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Lymphoma
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Lymphoma
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Lymphoma
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  1. List the components and major functions of the lymphatic system.
    • Lymphatic vessels and nodes and lymphatic organs such as tonsils, spleen, bone marrow and thymus.
    • Responsible for immune defenses and circulation of lymph fluid. 
    • Filtration of foreign particles and production of lymphocytes
  2. List the function of the Red Blood Cell
    transport oxygen & carbon dioxide
  3. List the function of the White blood cells
    they are critical to immunity as neutrophils & monocytes carry out phagocytosis
  4. What is the function of Lymphocytes?
    produce antiboties
  5. Heparin is produced by ___________ and _________ help detoxify
    basophils

    eosinophils
  6. ____________ initate blood clotting and hemostasis
    Platelets
  7. What are the 2 types of lymphocytes that participate in adaptive immune response?
    T and B lymphocytes

    • B cells secrete antibodies
    • T cells kill cells bearing specific antigens
  8. What are the smallest vessels of the lymphatic system, which are located in the spaces between cells?
    Lymphatic capillaries merge to form the lymphatic vessels
  9. Explain the flow of lymph
    The lymph vessels lead to collecting ducts that unite with the veins in the thorax. After leaving lymph nodes, the lymph vessels merge to form larger lymphatic trunks. The truck drains the lymph from the large regions of the body. The trunks join one of 2 collecting ducts known as the thoracic or right lymph duct
  10. Which lymphatic vessels empty into the cisternia chili, and which duct receives the lymph from the cisternia chili?
    The thoracic duct receives lymph from the cistern chili and the right lymphatic duct empties into the cisterna
  11. What happens to foreign substances in lymph that enters a lymph node?
    They are removed and filtered by phagocytes
  12. Lymph flows through a node in one direction entering __________ lymphatic vessels and flowing out by way of __________ lymphatic vessels
    afferent

    efferent
  13. hemopoiesis, red blood cells & platelet destruction and serves as a reservoir for blood are all functions of the _______
    spleen
  14. If a spleen is removed, which other organs take over some of the functions of the spleen?
    Without a spleen some of the other blood forming tissues can take over
  15. How do lymphatic vessels differ in structure from veins?
    Lymphatic vessels have the capacity for repair & regeneration
  16. The ______ traps immature stem cells and pre-processes then so that they can become sensitized and capable of maturing into types of lymphocytes essential to developing immunity.  This happens in fetal life & typically reaches its maximum performance by puberty
    Thymus
  17. The largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body is the ___________
    spleen
  18. The __________ is not considered a tonsil
    vallecula
  19. The _______ atrophies after puberty
    thymus
  20. B-cells mature in the ____
    bone marrow
  21. The lyphatic system consist of
    • fluids
    • vessels
    • organs & nodes
  22. Lymph nodes are what length?
    1 to 25mm
  23. The thymus gland functions in immunity by producing ______
    T-cells
  24. -originates in lymph nodes or extranodal tissue
    -most likely to spread randomly
    -commonly arising in GI tract
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  25. The thoracic duct is the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system and begins in the _____________
    Cisterna Chyli
  26. 75% of all Hodgkin disease will have
    nodular Sclerosis
  27. The most common presenting system for Hodgkin disease is _________
    painless cervical node enlargements
  28. A large binucleate or polynucleate cell present for a diagnosis of Hodgkin is referred to as ___________
    Reed-Steinberg Cell
  29. Classification for staging of lymphomas is traditionally
    Ann Arbor
  30. Staging of lymphoma may also include the following letters denoting organs
    S
    H
    L
    M
    P
    O
    D
    • S- SPEEN
    • H- LIVER
    • L- LUNG
    • M- MARROW
    • P- PLEURA
    • O- OSSEOUS
    • D- SKIN
  31. true or flase
    IrrADIATION IS THE PRIMARY TREATMENT MODALITY FOR THE MAJORITY OF PATIENTS WITH EARLY STAGES OF HODGKINS DISEASE
    • true & false.
    • this is debatable today.
    • traditionally rt has been the primary tx for early stage Hodgkin disease.
    • Due to the realization of late effects, tx schemes are being reconsidered putting chemotherapy as the primary and radiation as an adjunct to involve fields
  32. A 23 year old male patient has an enlarged cervical lymph node. Diagnostic work up reveals positive mediastinal & axillary nodes as well.
    Based on this information the patient would be
    Stage II
  33. Staging for Hodgkin disease also includes an A-B grouping.  Which symptom is not one of the classical B symptoms
    Unexplained pruritits
  34. In Hodgkin disease, involvement of several nodal regions of both sides of the diaphragm accompanied by localized involvement of an extralymphatic site is
    Stage IIIE
  35. In the treatment fields of Waldeyer ring for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the fields delineation closely resembles that of carcinoma of the _______________
    Nasopharynx
  36. Which lymph node groups are treated in  mantle field?
    • Cervical
    • mediastinal & Axillary Lymph Nodes
  37. Common side effects of radiation therapy to the abdomen include
    • nausea
    • vomiting &
    • fatigue
  38. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) differ in a couple of ways from Hodkins (HD) one is that occurs _______________
    primarly in older people
  39. __________ is most likely to spread randomly, rather than orderly as HD doses
    NHL
  40. A young woman has swelling in her lower neck for suspected HD. A chest x-ray also revealed mediastinal adenopathy.  She has not experienced any fever, night sweats or weight loss. Staging would likely be ________
    IIA
  41. THe most favorable of the four subtypes of Hodgkin disease is ___________
    nodular Sclerosis
  42. NHL may arise in  __________, _____ & _________
    • lymph nodes
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Weldeyer ring
  43. In NHL, lymphocytes pathologically arrange themselves in patterns called ______ & _____
    Follicular & Nodular
  44. The optimal dose in a mantle field is ___ to ___ cGy
    3500 to 4400
  45. Which nodes are included in the inverted Y field?
    • Retroperitoneal
    • Common iliac
    • Inguinal
  46. radiation carditis is a chronic side effect after irradiation to the mantle field.  THis is inflammation of the _____
    heart
  47. Transient dysphagia is an acute side effect after irradiation for Hodgkin. Dysphagia is _________________
    difficulty swallowing
  48. When extremely large fields are treated (as in mantles & para-aortics) above & below the diaphragm, an appropriate separation must be left between the fields. The separation is called the _______
    gap

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