MolGene 1.txt

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  1. The study of essential macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins
    Molecular biology
  2. The first living systems were based on _____.
  3. RNA is _____ and _____ than DNA.
    More reactive; less stable
  4. Did LUCA have the same genetic code that we use today?
  5. LUCA had _____ as genetic material.
  6. Eukaryotes are more closely related to _____.
  7. Charles Darwin
    Natural selection and evolution
  8. Natural selection depends on...
    Population variation, competition
  9. Mechanism if evolutionary change when traits are passed from parents to offspring; new species evolve from pre-existing species.
    Vertical descent
  10. Mechanism of evolution when traits are passed between species.
    Horizontal gene transfer
  11. Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer...
    Conjugation, transformation, transduction
  12. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a product of...
    Horizontal gene transfer
  13. Provides a reasonable explanation for observations.
  14. Provides and explanation for a large number of experiments.
    Scientific theory
  15. Deals with transmission of traits from one generation to another.
    Transmission genetics
  16. Mendel proposed the...
    Particulate mechanism of inheritance
  17. Equal and independent segregation of alleles occurs during formation of gamete cells
    Law of segregation
  18. Different genes assort into gametes independently of each other.
    Law of independent assortment
  19. When heterozygotes look different from either homozygous, they are expressing _____.
    Incomplete dominance
  20. When both genes are fully expressed in a heterozygote, they are expressing ____.
  21. When two genes are located on the same chromosome, they are ____.
  22. Sister chromatids are only present after.....
    S phase of mitosis
  23. Mitosis separates _____, therefore....
    Sister chromatids; chromosome number is the same at the end
  24. Meiosis I separates _____, and meiosis II separates _____, therefore...
    Homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; chromosome number is halved.
  25. Physical location of a gene on a chromosome.
  26. _________ during meiosis I leads to the independent assortment of alleles found on different chromosomes.
    Random alignment of chromosome pairs
  27. Walter sutton
    Chromosomal theory of inheritance
  28. Thomas Hunt Morgan
    Drosophila; sex-linked eye color proved genes were on chromosomes
  29. Bridges
    Demonstrated that rare genetic abnormalities were linked to abnormal chromosomes (nondisjunction)
  30. If two genes are linked, F2 generation of a test cross will...
    Produce only two parental phenotypes
  31. Bateson and Punnet
    Unexpected F2 with recombinant types having greatly decreased numbers (linked genes)
  32. Recombinants are a result of ______.
    Crossing over
  33. Crossing over occurs between _____ at _____.
    Sister chromatids; chiasmata
  34. Fredrick Griffith
    Streptococcus pneumoniae; mice; bacterial transformations
  35. Avery, McCloud, McCarty
    Used purification methods to reveal that DNA is the genetic material; with DNase, no transformation
  36. Hershey and Chase
    T2 phage infects E. coli; labeled DNA and protein and DNA was inserted into the bacteria to infect
  37. Beadle and Tatum
    Neurospora crassa; irradiated then looked for auxotrophs
  38. Mutants that require extra nutrients that wouldn't normally be required in the wild types
  39. Crick
    Proposed the central dogma
  40. Synthesis of RNA by reading one strand of the double stranded DNA
  41. Small RNA molecules with amino acids attached; Crick's adaptor molecule
  42. The process of producing a protein product from an mRNA molecule
  43. The phosphate of a nucleotide is located ____.
  44. The base of a nucleotide is located ____.
  45. Nucleosides lack a ____.
  46. Bases are linked to sugars by _____.
    Glycosidic bonds
  47. Nucleotides are linked together to form nucleic acids by _____.
    Phosphodiester bonds
  48. The sugar a phosphate parts of DNA molecule.
  49. The backbone is hydro___.
  50. Chargaff
    A pairs with T and G pairs with C
  51. Watson and Crick
    Described beta DNA
  52. The main form that DNA assumes in cells; right-handed
    Bets DNA
  53. Occurs when DNA is dehydrated or in a solution with little water; DNA/RNA hybrids and ds RNA assume this structure
    Alpha DNA
  54. Left-handed helix that tends to form in G-C rich regions or under very high salt conditions
    Z DNA
  55. RNAs that fold into three dimensional structures only in the presence of proteins
    RNP (ribonucleo-proteins)
  56. Denaturation occurs when...
    Hydrogen bonds are broken
  57. The point at which half the DNA of the sample is denatured
    Tm point
  58. Measure the reassociation of DNA
    Cot curves
  59. Southern blots are used to detect _____.
    DNA sequences
  60. Northern blots are used to detect _____.
    RNA sequences
  61. Types of cloning vectors
    Plasmids, phages, BACs, YACs
  62. Circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the host chromosome
  63. A quick electric shock that loosens the membrane of the cell
  64. Allows you to determine if the DNA has been inserted into the vector
    Selectable marker
  65. Contains a collection of fragments that are actually expressed; reflect he mRNAs in a cell.
    cDNA library
  66. Replicates a segment of DNA in the test tube by using DNA poly erases and primers
    Polymerase chain reaction
  67. Two methods to measure the quantities of mRNA levels
    RT and qPCR
  68. Two practical methods of DNA sequencing
    Maxum-Gilbert and Sanger
  69. The Sanger method requires the synthesis of...
    A DNA strand complementary to the strand you are sequencing
  70. The Sanger method uses:
    Primer, DNA polymerase, dideoxynucleotides
  71. The Sanger method finishes by:
    Electrophoresing the fragments
  72. Vectors that can be set up to express cloned genes.
    Expression vectors
  73. Method used for rapidly screen for expression of huge numbers of genes; DNA segments of known genes are amplified by PCR.
    DNA microarrays
  74. The complete haploid genetic complement of a typical cell; one copy of all the genetic information needed to specify an organism.
  75. Regions of contains that had been obviously characterized and provide landmarks in the genome.
    Sequence tagged sites (STSs)
  76. Regions of contigs who's expression could be measured.
    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs)
  77. Method where pieces from throughout the genome have been randomly sequenced and computers order the fragments.
    Shot gun sequencing
  78. Two genes with sequence similarity, even if not related by function.
  79. Two genes in different species that have a clear functional and sequence relationship.
  80. Genes that are related to each other but are in a single species.
  81. Conserved gene order
  82. We can get more than one polypeptide from each of our genes because....
    We have a lot of introns
  83. Generally less than ten bases long but may be repeated millions of times; have functional importance.
    Simple sequence repeats
  84. Single base variation between individuals; about 1 per 1000 base pairs.
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
  85. Genes that are inherited as a group because they are close together; define human populations.
  86. The study of complex interconnected processes
    Systems biology
  87. The genes expressed in a cell under given conditions; analyzed by microarrays.
  88. The complement of proteins in a cell under a given set of conditions.
  89. 2D gel electrophoresis uses:
    Isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE (gel electrophoresis)
  90. Proteins are separated based on their isoelectric points, separating based on charge
    Isoelectric focusing
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MolGene 1.txt
Molecular genetics 1
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