Card Set Information
Molecular genetics 1
The study of essential macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and proteins
The first living systems were based on _____.
RNA is _____ and _____ than DNA.
More reactive; less stable
Did LUCA have the same genetic code that we use today?
LUCA had _____ as genetic material.
Eukaryotes are more closely related to _____.
Natural selection and evolution
Natural selection depends on...
Population variation, competition
Mechanism if evolutionary change when traits are passed from parents to offspring; new species evolve from pre-existing species.
Mechanism of evolution when traits are passed between species.
Horizontal gene transfer
Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer...
Conjugation, transformation, transduction
Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a product of...
Horizontal gene transfer
Provides a reasonable explanation for observations.
Provides and explanation for a large number of experiments.
Deals with transmission of traits from one generation to another.
Mendel proposed the...
Particulate mechanism of inheritance
Equal and independent segregation of alleles occurs during formation of gamete cells
Law of segregation
Different genes assort into gametes independently of each other.
Law of independent assortment
When heterozygotes look different from either homozygous, they are expressing _____.
When both genes are fully expressed in a heterozygote, they are expressing ____.
When two genes are located on the same chromosome, they are ____.
Sister chromatids are only present after.....
S phase of mitosis
Mitosis separates _____, therefore....
Sister chromatids; chromosome number is the same at the end
Meiosis I separates _____, and meiosis II separates _____, therefore...
Homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; chromosome number is halved.
Physical location of a gene on a chromosome.
_________ during meiosis I leads to the independent assortment of alleles found on different chromosomes.
Random alignment of chromosome pairs
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Drosophila; sex-linked eye color proved genes were on chromosomes
Demonstrated that rare genetic abnormalities were linked to abnormal chromosomes (nondisjunction)
If two genes are linked, F2 generation of a test cross will...
Produce only two parental phenotypes
Bateson and Punnet
Unexpected F2 with recombinant types having greatly decreased numbers (linked genes)
Recombinants are a result of ______.
Crossing over occurs between _____ at _____.
Sister chromatids; chiasmata
Streptococcus pneumoniae; mice; bacterial transformations
Avery, McCloud, McCarty
Used purification methods to reveal that DNA is the genetic material; with DNase, no transformation
Hershey and Chase
T2 phage infects E. coli; labeled DNA and protein and DNA was inserted into the bacteria to infect
Beadle and Tatum
Neurospora crassa; irradiated then looked for auxotrophs
Mutants that require extra nutrients that wouldn't normally be required in the wild types
Proposed the central dogma
Synthesis of RNA by reading one strand of the double stranded DNA
Small RNA molecules with amino acids attached; Crick's adaptor molecule
The process of producing a protein product from an mRNA molecule
The phosphate of a nucleotide is located ____.
The base of a nucleotide is located ____.
Nucleosides lack a ____.
Bases are linked to sugars by _____.
Nucleotides are linked together to form nucleic acids by _____.
The sugar a phosphate parts of DNA molecule.
The backbone is hydro___.
A pairs with T and G pairs with C
Watson and Crick
Described beta DNA
The main form that DNA assumes in cells; right-handed
Occurs when DNA is dehydrated or in a solution with little water; DNA/RNA hybrids and ds RNA assume this structure
Left-handed helix that tends to form in G-C rich regions or under very high salt conditions
RNAs that fold into three dimensional structures only in the presence of proteins
Denaturation occurs when...
Hydrogen bonds are broken
The point at which half the DNA of the sample is denatured
Measure the reassociation of DNA
Southern blots are used to detect _____.
Northern blots are used to detect _____.
Types of cloning vectors
Plasmids, phages, BACs, YACs
Circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the host chromosome
A quick electric shock that loosens the membrane of the cell
Allows you to determine if the DNA has been inserted into the vector
Contains a collection of fragments that are actually expressed; reflect he mRNAs in a cell.
Replicates a segment of DNA in the test tube by using DNA poly erases and primers
Polymerase chain reaction
Two methods to measure the quantities of mRNA levels
RT and qPCR
Two practical methods of DNA sequencing
Maxum-Gilbert and Sanger
The Sanger method requires the synthesis of...
A DNA strand complementary to the strand you are sequencing
The Sanger method uses:
Primer, DNA polymerase, dideoxynucleotides
The Sanger method finishes by:
Electrophoresing the fragments
Vectors that can be set up to express cloned genes.
Method used for rapidly screen for expression of huge numbers of genes; DNA segments of known genes are amplified by PCR.
The complete haploid genetic complement of a typical cell; one copy of all the genetic information needed to specify an organism.
Regions of contains that had been obviously characterized and provide landmarks in the genome.
Sequence tagged sites (STSs)
Regions of contigs who's expression could be measured.
Expressed sequence tags (ESTs)
Method where pieces from throughout the genome have been randomly sequenced and computers order the fragments.
Shot gun sequencing
Two genes with sequence similarity, even if not related by function.
Two genes in different species that have a clear functional and sequence relationship.
Genes that are related to each other but are in a single species.
Conserved gene order
We can get more than one polypeptide from each of our genes because....
We have a lot of introns
Generally less than ten bases long but may be repeated millions of times; have functional importance.
Simple sequence repeats
Single base variation between individuals; about 1 per 1000 base pairs.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Genes that are inherited as a group because they are close together; define human populations.
The study of complex interconnected processes
The genes expressed in a cell under given conditions; analyzed by microarrays.
The complement of proteins in a cell under a given set of conditions.
2D gel electrophoresis uses:
Isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE (gel electrophoresis)
Proteins are separated based on their isoelectric points, separating based on charge