PSY 363 Exam 1

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ralejo
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261324
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PSY 363 Exam 1
Updated:
2014-02-16 19:17:10
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Abnormal Child Adolescent Psychology Leary
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Chapters 1-3
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  1. What is abnormal behavior?
    • Developmentally inappropriate
    • Need to consider: culture, gender and situation, the role of other
  2. How common are "problems"?
    • 5.4 to 35.5% of youth aged 4-18
    • 13-22% have major emotional and conduct disorders

    • 10% youth have serious problems
    • 10% have mild or moderate problem
  3. Boys are at ________ risk for many disorders
    higher
  4. Important gender differences
    • Timing
    • Developmental change
    • Expression of problems
  5. Disorders higher in males
    • Autism spectrum disorder
    • Oppositional disorder
    • Drug abuse
    • Intellectual disability
    • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • Conduct disorder
    • Language disorder
    • Reading disability
  6. Disorders higher in females
    • Anxieties and fears
    • Depression
    • Eating disorder
  7. Early explanations of psychopathology
    • Adult-focused
    • Demonology
    • Somatogenesis
  8. 19th century
    • Progress in identifying and classifying
    • Some childhood disorders identified
  9. 20th century
    Developments alter how children and adolescents were viewed
  10. Sigmund Freud: Structures of Mind
    • Id: pleasure principle
    • Ego: reality principle
    • Superego: moral principle
  11. Sigmund Freud: Psychosexual Theory of Development
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
  12. G. Stanley Hall
    • Collected data on problems of youth to understand mental disorder, crime, social disorder
    • Helped establish APA and first president
  13. Alfred Binet and Theophil Simon
    • Design test to identify children who were in need of special education
    • Binet-Simon test = basis for development of intelligence tests
  14. Arnold Gesell
    • Recorded physical, motor, and social behavior of young children in lab at Yale
    • Charted developmental norms
    • Created extensive film archive of child behavior
    • Strong advocate for optimal rearing conditions for youth
  15. Working with youth and their families
    • Efforts made on interdisciplinary basis
    • Professional contact involves parents
  16. Working with young clients
    • Special considerations for working with youth
    • Efforts to create a therapeutic alliance
    • Informed consent protects basic rights of youth
  17. Perspective
    • How we view things
    • How we approach something
    • How we understand it
  18. Paradigm
    Shared perspectives of investigators
  19. Theories
    • Explanation of phenomena
    • Needs evidence
    • Evidence-based treatments
  20. Interactional
    • Diathesis-Stress Model (Vulnerability stress model)
    • Perceived vulnerability that person has and comes up  when  there is stress trigger
    • If baby born from depressed mother, they can have  something trigger their own stress
    • Biological susceptibility
  21. Transactional
    • Development occurs via transactional between individual and environment
    • Past experiences in environment
    • Not everyone has same experiences
  22. Systems
    • Development occurs over time as systems interact
    • What we interact with on a day-to-day basis
  23. Direct cause
    Variable X leads straight to outcome
  24. Indirect
    X influences other variables that in turn lead to outcome
  25. Mediating factors
    Explain the relationship between variables
  26. Moderating factors
    Presence or absence of a factor influences the relationship between variables
  27. Necessary cause
    Must be present for disorder to occur
  28. Sufficient
    Can be responsible alone
  29. Contributing
    Not always necessary but sufficient for cause
  30. Stable Adaptation
    • Few environmental adversities
    • Few behavior problems
    • Good self-worth
  31. Stable Maladaptation
    Chronic environmental adversities (moving, no food)
  32. Reversal of Maladaptation
    Ex: Start poor, being to thrive
  33. •Decline of Adaptation
    • Environmental/Biological shifts bring adversity
    • Ex: family divorce
  34. Temporal Maladaptation
    • Reflect transient experimental risk taking
    • Ex: use of illegal drugs
  35. Equifinality
    • Diverse factors that equal same outcome
    • Different experiences/pathways, diagnosis of disorders
    • Ex; Antisocial exposure to domestic violence (bullying in home, substance  abuse, poor parenting)
  36. Polyfinality / Multifinality
    • An experience or other influences leads to outcome
    • Ex: (See Figure)
  37. Nomothetic
    Must have all symptoms for diagnosis
  38. _________ + ___________ = Pathology
    Vulnerability (Predisposition) + Stressor = Pathology
  39. Resilience
    Despite challenges, positive outcome
  40. Correlates of resilience in young people
    • Problem solving skills
    • Skills in self-regulation
    • Positive views of self
    • Achievement motivation
    • Perceived self-efficacy and control
    • Active coping strategies
    • Close, caring family relationships
    • Supportive relationships with adults
    • Friends or romantic partners 
    • Spirituality, finding meaning in life
  41. Heterotypic continuity
    • Symptoms change with development
    • Ex: As you become older, not as immature when you were 5
  42. Homotypic continuity
    Symptoms stable regardless of level of development
  43. Bowlby
    • Attachment needed to insure infant survival
    • Disturbances can cause problems
  44. Ainsworth
    • Strange Situation
    • Secure: Won't meltdown
    • Insecure
    •        -Resistant: Start a fit
    •        -Avoidant: Ignores caregiver
    • Disorganized: Meltdown; act like they don't know who caregiver is
    • Attachment leads to internal models that guide future relationships
    • Not always clearly linked to problems
    • Can change over time
  45. 3 Types of Temperament
    • Easy
    • Slow-to-warm
    • Difficult
  46. 3 dimensions of temperament
    • Negative reactivity
    • Inhibition
    • Self-regulation
  47. 3 elements of emotion
    • Private feelings of sadness, joy, anger, disgust, etc. 
    • Autonomic nervous system arousal and bodily reactions
    • Overt behavioral expressions (smiles, scowls, drooping shoulders)
  48. Central Nervous System
    Brain and spinal cord
  49. Peripheral Nervous System
    Messaged between CNS and other areas

    • Somatic System: sensing and voluntary movement
    • Autonomic Nervous System: arousal and emotions
  50. Endocrine System
    • Glands, hormones
    • Secretion of hormones; metabolism; growth
  51. Hindbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
    • Cerebellum
  52. Midbrain
    • Connects hindbrain to upper structures
    • Reticular activating system
  53. Forebrain
    • 2 hemispheres connected by corpus callosum
    • Cerebral cortex (outer surface)
    • 4 lobes in each hemisphere

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