A: Finals: Nephrology

Card Set Information

Author:
Mike2556
ID:
261332
Filename:
A: Finals: Nephrology
Updated:
2014-02-11 06:59:32
Tags:
uti nephrology
Folders:

Description:
Nephrology and urology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Mike2556 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the nephritic syndrome?
    • Haematuria
    • Proteinuria
    • Hypertension
    • Uremia with oligouria
  2. What is the nephrotic syndrome?
    • Proteinuria
    • Hypoalbuminaemia
    • Hyperlipidaemia
    • Oedema
  3. What causes the nephrotic or nephritic syndrome? Give 4
    • Primary glomerulonephritis (RPGN, membranous)
    • Diabetes
    • SLE
    • Wegener's
  4. What is a Wilm's tumour?
    Kidney cancer usually occurring in children
  5. Outline the pathophysiology of IgA nephropathy
    • Occurs days after non-specific URTI/GI infection (not weeks)
    • Increased IgA production in response
    • For unknown reason, IgA deposited in glomerulus
  6. What are the RPGNs?
    • Rapidy progressing glomerulonephritides
    • Group of conditions with common features and histology
    • Include Goodpastures and Wegeners
  7. What investigations are of use in investigating AKI? Give 4
    • Bloods: Infection, U+Es and CK
    • Urinalysis
    • Renal US
    • GN screen: Antibodies and bence-jones
  8. Give 6 complications of chronic kidney disease
    • Hypertension
    • Proteinuria
    • Anaemia
    • Acidosis
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Osteopenia
  9. Give 3 complications of haemodialysis
    • Hypotension
    • Air embolism
    • Septicaemia
  10. Give 4 forms of renal replacement therapy
    • Haemofiltration
    • Haemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis
    • Kidney transplantation
  11. Give 3 complications of peritoneal dialysis
    • Fluid overload
    • Peritoneal fibrosis
    • Infection
  12. Give 4 clinical features of renal cell carcinoma
    • Asymptomatic till late stages
    • Haematuria
    • Flank pain
    • Abdominal mass
    • Loin pain
  13. What is the most common renal carcinoma and give 4 risk factors
    Clear cell carcinoma (proximal tubule)

    • Risk factors:
    • - Male
    • - Increasing age
    • - Smoking
    • - Obesity
  14. Give 2 risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma
    • Smoking
    • Occupational (petroleum, rubber)
  15. Outline 3 management options in RCC
    • Conservative: "Watchful waiting" in small tumours and elderly patients. US, Bloods and CT
    • Surgical: Partial or radical nephrectomy
    • Radio/Chemo: An option but near ineffective
  16. Give 4 features of bladder cancer
    • Very similar to prostate/bladder infection
    • Frank haematuria
    • Dysuria
    • Increased frequency
    • Hesitancy
  17. Give 3 management options for treating bladder cancer
    • Trans-urethral cautery/resection
    • Immunotherapy
    • Cystectomy
  18. Give 5 risk factors for UTI
    • Female
    • Sexual activity
    • Urinary incontinence
    • Catheterisation
    • Diabetes
  19. What is the most common causative organism for UTIs?
    E.Coli
  20. Give 3 features of UTI and 3 of pyelonephritis
    • Dysuria
    • Increased frequency
    • Lower back pain

    • Fever
    • Flank pain
    • Haematuria

    Haematuria is rare in low UTI
  21. Give 4 investigations to confirm suspected UTI
    • Bloods: FBC for neutrophilia, U+Es for abnormal kidney function
    • MSSU: Nitrites, leucocytes, microscopy
  22. Give 2 medications typically prescribed in UTI
    • Trimethoprim
    • Nitrofurantoin
  23. Give 3 complications of UTI
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Kidney failure
    • Septicaemia
  24. Give 3 DDx for acute testicular pain
    • Testicular torsion
    • Epididymitis (N.Gon or E.Coli)
    • Fournier's gangrene
  25. What is testicular torsion? Give 4 features of its presentation
    Twisting of spermatic cord, strangulating blood vessels and causing ischaemia

    • - Sudden severe pain and tenderness
    • - Swollen
    • - Transverse lie
    • - Absent cremasteric reflex
  26. How is testicular torsion diagnosed and managed?
    • Emergency
    • - Diagnosed on clinical exam +/- urgent doppler US
    • - Non-surgical manual rotation
    • - Surgical detorsion with suture to scrotal muscle

    • - 90% chance of preservation <6 hours
    • - 50% at 12hr, >24 near 0%
  27. Give 4 features of renal/ureteric calculus
    • Renal colic
    • Pain radiates to groin or thigh
    • Haematuria
    • Urinary urgency
  28. Give 4 risk factors for renal calculus
    • Dehydration
    • High protein/sodium intake
    • Hyperparathyroidism
    • Crohn's
  29. How is a renal calculus diagnosed?
    • Typical history
    • Examination
    • Urinalysis for haematuria without leucocytes
    • Radiology if required
  30. Give 4 options in the management of kidney stones
    • Conservative: In small stones, analgesia and natural passage possible
    • Expulsion therapy: Tamsulosin, nifedipine promote excretion
    • Lithotropsy: Shock waves
    • Surgery: Uteroscopy and stent dilation
  31. Give 2 complications of kidney stones
    • Recurrence
    • UTI/Pyelonephritis
  32. Give 5 clinical features of BPH
    • Urinary frequency
    • Hesitancy
    • Intermittency
    • Straining
    • Dribbling
  33. How is BPH diagnosed?
    • Rectal examination for enlargement
    • Blood PSA levels (non-specific)
    • US
  34. Give 3 diseases which might cause a raised PSA
    • Prostate cancer
    • BPH
    • Prostatitis
  35. Give 3 management options in BPH
    • Lifestyle: Reduce fluid intake/caffeine/drug avoidance
    • Medication: 5a reductase inhibitors and alpha-blockers
    • Surgery: Transurethral resection of prostate
  36. Give 4 risk factors for prostate cancer
    • Obesity
    • Family history
    • Increasing age
    • Increasing sexual activity
  37. Where and what is the most common prostate cancer cell type?
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Found in peripheral zone
  38. What is the prognosis for prostate cancer?
    • 80% 5 year survival overall
    • 50-75% of patients die from other causes due to presentation late in life
    • 98% in stage 1
    • 30% in stage 4
  39. Give 4 methods of investigating suspected prostate cancer
    • DRE
    • Markers; PSA
    • Transrectal US
    • Transrectal biopsy
  40. Give 3 management options in prostate cancer
    • Watchful waiting: Used in stage 1 low grade
    • Surgery: Radical prostatectomy
    • Radiotherapy
  41. Give 5 causes of urinary tract obstruction
    • Calculi
    • Strictures
    • Blood clot
    • BPH
    • External tumour
  42. Give 3 management options for urinary tract obstruction
    • Treat underlying cause
    • Foley or suprapubic catheter
    • Uteral stent
  43. What is cryptorchidism? Why does it occur?
    • Absence of one or both testicles
    • Normal in <1 year
    • Interruption of the descent of testis from inferior kidney via inguinal canal to scrotum

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview