Pretest 2

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Chawk
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261341
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Pretest 2
Updated:
2014-02-28 15:45:47
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biology
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Pretest 2
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  1. The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of
    D) diverse proteins embedded in a phospholipid bilayer.
  2. When physicians perform an organ transplant, they choose a donor whose tissues match those of the recipient as closely as possible. Which of the following cell components are being matched?
    C) cell-surface carbohydrates
  3. Which of the following statements regarding membrane function is false?
    • D) The plasma membrane is the control
    • center of the cell.
  4. Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by
    D) Passive Transport
  5. White blood cells (WBCs) are more resistant to lysis than red blood cells (RBCs). When looking at a sample of blood for WBCs, what could you do to reduce interference from RBCs?
    • C) Mix the blood in a hypotonic
    • solution, which will cause the RBCs to lyse.
  6. Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?
    • D) Active transport is driven by the
    • concentration gradient.
  7. Kinetic energy differs from chemical energy in that
    C) kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules.
  8. According to ________, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
    B) the first law of thermodynamics
  9. When a cell uses chemical energy to perform work, it uses the energy released from a(n) ________ reaction to drive a(n) ________ reaction.
    A) exergonic . . . endergonic
  10. ATP can be used as the cell's energy exchange mechanism because
    A) endergonic reactions can be fueled by coupling them with the formation of ATP from ADP.
  11. A child is brought to the hospital with a fever of 107°F. Doctors immediately order an ice bath to lower the child's temperature. Which of the following statements offers the most logical explanation for this action?
    B) Elevated body temperatures may denature enzymes. This would interfere with the cell's abilities to catalyze various reactions.
  12. How does inhibition of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by a competitive inhibitor differ from inhibition by a noncompetitive inhibitor?
    D) Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of the enzyme; noncompetitive inhibitors bind to a different site.
  13. Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
    A) Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
  14. Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________.
    B) is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
  15. Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
    A) Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline.
  16. The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing "200 Calories" per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving?
    C) 200,000
  17. During redox reactions,
    C) electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
  18. Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.
    A) gain of electrons . . . loss of electrons
  19. During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?
    D) Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.
  20. A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit
    D) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
  21. Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
    C) Glycolysis
  22. The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the
    D) matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane.
  23. During chemiosmosis,
    • C) a concentration gradient is generated when large numbers of H+ ions are passively transported from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the mitochondrion's
    • intermembrane space.
  24. Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that
    B) the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.
  25. Photoautotrophs
    B) produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
  26. What is the likely origin of chloroplasts?
    B) photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells
  27. ________ cells in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis.
    B) Mesophyll
  28. If you expose a photosynthesizing plant to water that contains both radioactive H and radioactive O, in which of the products of photosynthesis will the radioactive H and O show up?
    D) H in glucose and water; O in O2
  29. Which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
    D) In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide.
  30. Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false?
    A) ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during cellular respiration.
  31. Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle?
    A) glucose, ADP, NADP+
  32. Which of the following is a normal process of photosynthesis that could not occur if all reaction centers were inactivated by a toxin?
    A) donation of excited electrons by chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor
  33. How do the reaction centers of photosystem I and II differ?
    B) Each preferentially absorbs slightly different wavelengths of light.
  34. Photophosphorylation during photosynthesis differs from oxidative phosphorylation during cellular respiration in that
    D) the final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen.
  35. What is the main adaptive advantage of the C4 and CAM photosynthesis strategies over the C3 strategy?
    A) They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose efficiently under hot, dry conditions.
  36. Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is true?
    B) The greenhouse effect is exacerbated by the use of fossil fuels.
  37. It has been argued that cutting old-growth forests and replacing them with plantations of young trees would help to alleviate the threat of global greenhouse warming. What important fact does this argument ignore?
    C) Most of the biomass of the cut trees would be added to the atmosphere as CO2 within a few years.
  38. Which of the following statements regarding sexual and asexual reproduction is true?
    D) Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction.
  39. Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false?
    D) Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes.
  40. Which of the following statements regarding prokaryotes is false?
    A) Prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes.
  41. Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes in that they
    D) are housed in a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
  42. Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
    A) interphase
  43. The genetic material is duplicated during
    C) the S phase.
  44. Looking into your microscope, you spot an unusual cell. Instead of the typical rounded cell shape, the cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends. It sort of looks like the number 8! Then you realize that this cell is
    A) undergoing cytokinesis.
  45. Which of the following is a feature of plant cell division that distinguishes it from animal cell division?
    A) formation of a cell plate
  46. Which of the following must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally?
    B) The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body.
  47. Mature human nerve cells and muscle cells
    C) are permanently in a state of nondivision.
  48. You are asked to culture an unidentified sample of animal tissue. You notice that the cells seem to fail to exhibit density-dependent inhibition. The source of this tissue sample is most likely
    A) a cancer
  49. Which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false?
    C) Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
  50. Which of the following statements regarding the differences between mitosis and meiosis is false?
    D) Crossing over is a phenomenon that creates genetic diversity during mitosis.

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