Block Test 4

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  1. ETCO2 Less Than 35 mmHg =
    • Hyperventilation
    • Hypocapnia
  2. ETC02 Greater Than 45 mmHg=
    • Hypoventilation
    • Hypercapnia
  3. Normal range of pH
    • 7.35 - 7.45  (7.40 normal)
    • Acidosis (acidemia) pH drops below 7.35 
    • Alkalosis (alkalemia) pH rises above 7.45
  4. Which part of the spine controls the Phrenic nerve
    C3 - C5 (keeps the diaphragm alive)
  5. Gradually increasing rate (hyperventilation) and depth of respirations followed by a gradual decrease of respirations with intermittent periods of apnea; associated with brainstem insult
    Cheyne-Strokes Respirations
  6. Deep, rapid respirations; seen in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis
    Kussmaul respirations
  7. Irregular, erratic respirations, no rhythm, rate, and depth of breathing with intermittent periods of apnea; results from increased intracranial pressure
    Biot (ataxic) respirations
  8. Prolonged, gasping inhalation followed by extremely short, ineffective exhalation; associated with brainstem insult
    Apneustic respirations
  9. Slow, shallow, irregular, or occasional gasping breaths; results from cerebral anoxia. Heart has stopped but brain sends signals to breath
    (not considered respiration)
    Agonal gasps
  10. Air normally moves into the lungs from the
    Pressure gradient created when the lungs expand
  11. At sea level pressure of all gases is
    760 mm Hg or 760 torr
  12. Partial pressure of oxygen is
    760 X 21% =159mm Hg
  13. Increases venous capacitance (venous pooling), vasodilates arterioles, reducing preload and afterload. Is a MOA of
  14. Reduces workload on the heart by causing blood pooling (decreased preload)

    Arteriolar vasodilation (decreased afterload)

    Coronary artery vasodilation

    Increases blood flow to myocardium

    Decreases myocardial O2 demand
    • Mechanism of Action: 
  15. How much air does a ET tube hold
    10cc or less
  16. Fresh air that is inspired into the lungs contains:
    • 21% Oxygen
    • 78% Nitrogen
    • 0.3% Carbon dioxide
  17. Exhaled air contains approximately how much oxygen

    *remember when providing mouth to mask
  18. The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
    • External respirations
    • (pulmonary respirations)
  19. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the systemic circulation and the cells of the body
    • Internal respirations
    • (cellular respirations)
  20. A condition in which the tissues and cells do not receive enough oxygen
  21. Early and Late signs of Hypoxia
    Early: restlessness, irritability, apprehension, tachycardia, anxiety

    Late: mental status change, weak (thready) pulse, cyanosis
  22. A low level of oxygen in arterial blood; reversed by administering supplemental oxygen
  23. Drug of choice for; Burns Potentially Involving the Airway 
    • (Solu-Medrol)

    Dosage: 125mg slow IV bolus
  24. Drug: Sedative/hypnotic agent 
    • IV: 0.3 mg/kg over 30-60 seconds
  25. What drug should not be given to patients for the period from 24 hours to 21 days after significant burns or crush injury due to elevated potassium levels and potential for
    cardiac dysrhythmias.
  26. The Upper airway consist of:
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Oropharynx
    • Nasopharynx
    • Nasal air passage
  27. The Lower airway consist of:
    • Trachea
    • Bronchioles
    • Main bronchus
  28. Digital clubbing is a sign of ___________
    and is seen in whom:
    • Chronic Hypoxia
    • Young people with congenital heart disease
    • Older people with severe chronic lung disease
  29. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
    Comprises of what two distinct entities
    • Emphysema
    • Chronic bronchitis
  30. The infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the functional portions of the lung (parenchyma)
  31. Sputum production most days of the month for 3 or more months out of the year for more than 2 years
    Chronic bronchitis
  32. The most common asthma medication
    Albuterol sulfate
  33. The triad of Asthma airway problems
    • Bronchospasm
    • Increased mucus production 
    • Peripheral airway edema
  34. Drug used for Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor poisoning (organophosphate, carbamate cholinergic poisoning) 

    • Atropine sulfate 
    • IV: 1-5 mg doubled every 5 minutes
  35. Drug used for:
    Induction of anesthesia for rapid sequence intubation (RSI)
    • IV: 0.3 mg/kg 30-60 seconds
  36. Drug used for:
    Endotracheal intubation requiring paralysis (RSI)
    • IV: 1.5 mg/kg repeat in 2-3 minutes to achieve paralysis
  37. Drug used for:
    Anti convulsant
    Induction for intubation 
    Management of acute agitation/excited delirium
    MIDAZOLAM (versed)
  38. The most common hypoventilation crisis paramedics see is:
    Acute Heroin overdose

    *intoxication of alcohol & narcotics can reduce respiratory drive also
  39. Functions of the respiratory system
    • Ventilation
    • Diffusion
    • Perfusion
  40. The only artery that usually carries deoxygenated blood
    Pulmonary artery
  41. What innervates (supplies) the diaphragm, thoracic spinal nerves that innervate the intercostal muscles and other mechanisms of neurologic control
    Phrenic nerve
  42. Fluid balance, acid balance, and blood pressure are controlled in part by the:
  43. Signs and symptoms of cholinergic/organophosphate poisoning:
    • Excess salivation
    • Lacrimation (tears)
    • Urination
    • Defecation (SLUD)
    • Bardycardia
    • Coma
  44. What can be proarrhythmic when given in combination with Amiodarone due to similar
    mechanisms of action.
    • Beta blockers
    • Calcium channel blockers
    • and other Antiarrhythmics
  45. Dextrose 50%
    Incompatibilities/Drug Interactions:
    Sodium bicarbonate

    Diazepam will precipitate if given concurrently without flushing
  46. Administration should be considered only for treatment of documented severe acidosis associated with prolonged cardiac arrest or an unstable hemodynamic state, hyperkalemia or certain overdoses
    (cyclic antidepressants,ASA,phenobarbital)
    Sodium bicarbonate
  47. Sedative-hypnotic drugs that provide muscle relaxation and mild sedation; includes valium and versed
  48. Ototoxicity (ear poisoning) and resulting deafness can occur from administration of what drug
    FUROSEMIDE (Lasix)
  49. The specific sign of right-sided heart failure that occurs when mild pressure on the patient's liver causes the jugular veins to engorge
    Hepatojugular reflux
  50. Tracheal deviation is a classic sign of
    Tension pneumothorax
  51. Diuretics are used to help reduce:
    Blood pressure 

    Maintence of fluid balance in patients with heart failure
  52. The Inhaled / Exhaled (I/E) ratio in healthy people breathing quietly is typically:
    1:2 (takes twice as long to exhale as to inhale)
  53. Emphysema, Chronic bronchitis, and asthma collectively affect how many adults in the US
    10% to 20%
  54. The primary approach to dealing with secretions in a person with asthma is to
    Improve hydration
  55. Signs and symptoms of Emphysema
    • Barrel chest
    • Tachypneic (rapid breathing)
    • Use extreme amounts of energy to breath
  56. Triggering the gag reflex can cause or increase:
    Intracranial pressure
  57. Pulse oximetry does not differentiate between oxygen and:
    Carbon monoxide
  58. The condition known as atelectasis is:
    Alveoli collapse.
  59. There is significantly more circulation to the lung ________ than there is to the lung _________.
    • Bases 
    • Apices (rounded upper part)
  60. A condition that creates a surplus of red blood cells over time, making blood thick, is known as: 
    1) endocarditis.  
    2) cor pulmonale.  
    3) polycythemia.  
    4) parenchyma.
    3) polycythemia.
  61. Acidotic means the _______ in the arterial blood falls too low.
  62. Hyperventilating patients can become hypercapnic, meaning there is too much ________________ in their blood. 
    carbon monoxide  
    carbon dioxide
    carbon dioxide
  63. What common problem is experienced when positive pressure ventilation is used with a bag-valve device
    Air flows into both the trachea and the esophagus
  64. What mechanism stops the body from inhaling too far and over-expanding the lungs?
    Hering-Breuer reflex
Card Set:
Block Test 4
2014-02-16 23:58:03
Block Test

MEDIC 2014
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